Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Personality and Ill Health

Among the psychological factors that impact health, personality – that is table individual differences in thinking, feeling and behaving- plays a pivotal role. For example, an individual high in a sense of coherence (SOC), therefore perceive less stress and see the world as more manageable, resulting in good health (Williams, 2010). Furthermore, the individual differences that exist In terms of the attitude the individual has towards their health and how they conceptualize their illness Is very important.Although It Is a popular notion that personality traits Influence the state of a persons physical health, It Is difficult to establish the true nature of the relationship between resonantly and health , including measurement, the distinction between subjectively reported symptoms and objective signs of illness and the direction of causation (Matthews et al. , 2003). Four ways in which health status and personality might be linked have been identified by Souls and Retouches, (1 990).Firstly is the strongest assumptions about the importance of personality traits which represent biologically based differences that may cause different illness outcomes. Second, the relationship between traits and illness might be correlation rather than casual. Third is the usability that traits lead to behaviors that In turn lead to illnesses e. G. Smoking. Finally, Illnesses may cause personality changes. Nonetheless research has tended to focus on one of these aspects at a time which may oversimplify the complete Interrelationships that are likely to exist (Friedman, 2000).The past has shown that from early times a link has almost always been made between personality and illness. Hippocrates (460-377 BC) described physical illness as being caused by the balance of bodily fluids or humors – meaning personality traits (Steelmaker and Swastika. , 1992). Personality is often conceptualized as specific behavioral styles as opposed to personality disorders or personality d omains. Type A, Type B, Type C and Type D are some examples of a collection of behavior patterns that are grouped together to form a personality type.Type A personality is one of the most studied of these. It Is a behavior pattern marked by tenseness, impatience and aggressiveness, often relating in stress related symptoms such as insomnia and Indigestion, and possibly Increasing the risk of heart disease. The term Type A' was developed by Friedman & Rosen man (1 959), by which stile, and very tense – summarized basically as a â€Å"workaholic† personality. Type A personality was developed using structured interviews, however, although reliable it was labor intensive and therefore expensive.Due to this it lead to the development of the Jenkins self report measure Nonsense et al. , 1974). There were at least four major breakthrough studies of personality and cardiac vascular disease PROVIDING CONFLICTING RESULTS. The earliest success for Type A personality came from the Western Collaborative Group Study (Roseanne et al. , 1975). This study followed 3, 154 initially healthy men geed between 39 & 59 years. The sample was followed up 8 h years later with Type A men were found to have twice as much cardiovascular disease than Type B men.Type B personalities are very laid back , patient, and take a very relaxed low-key approach to life and their Job. This would suggest that Type A personalities are more prone to cardiovascular disease than Type B personalities. However, a later follow up study showed more negative or unequivocal results. After 22 years the same group reported no effects of Type A but quiet marked effects on mortality from blood erasure, cholesterol , smoking and age (Raglans & Brand, 1988), suggesting there was more than Type A personality directly increasing risk of coronary heart disease.Similarly, a cohort study known as the Farmington study, began between 1965 & 1967 (Haynes et al. , 1978). This involved 5,127 men and women being a ssessed and found the incidence of cardiovascular disease to be significantly higher in Type A than Type B. However, in a follow up study results were less clear cut as it was found that Type A personality was predictive of cardiovascular disease only in certain occupational groups. Also, women with cardiovascular disease scored more highly on Type A behavior and suppressed more hostility, tension and anxiety than men.Adding to these conflicting results were the Honolulu Heart Program Study (Cohen & Reid, 1985) and the British Regional Heart Study Monsoon et al 1987) which found no significant association between Type A personality and cardiovascular disease. These findings have tried to be explained through a meta-analysis of the literature (Booth-Kelley & Friedman, 1987) where findings were said to be due to the differences in the ways of assessing behavior and the use of different outcome assure, in that a distinction needs to be made between objectively and subjectively measurin g these outcomes.Although, an association was made between Type A personality and cardiovascular disease, the contradictory results can mean a number of things and further investigations of pathways and mechanisms is necessary to fully understand the associations. This suggests that although Type A may have an association to C. V. D. , it does not depict a definite outcome of illness. Another facet in research is that provided by personality theorists, where the components of personality are looked at instead of the personality as a whole.Glass (1977) found three separate components made up Type A personality. These included striving competitively for achievement, sense of urgency and high levels of hostility. Compared to the more relaxed, easy going Type BBS; Type As were seen as more concerned with having control and having lower threshold for perceiving Hostility here is described as the â€Å"toxic† component. In a meta-analysis of 45 studies (Chide & Step, 2009) conclude d hostility and anger was associated with an increase(20%) risk of C.H. D. Developing in originally healthy people. Also, research such as the Western Electric Study (1983) has consistently mound a link between hostility and C. H. D. Similarly, 12 longitudinal studies examined the role of hostility on the incidence of C. H. D. , 6 longitudinal studies have examined the role of hostility on C. H. D. Mortality and 2 longitudinal studies examined the role of hostility n sub clinical C. V. D. The results from these revealed that anger/hostility was associated with C. H. D. ND cause mortality, independent of potential biologic and socio-demographic confounder (Fink, 2009). In contrast, the high scores found on the personality trait of hostility assumed a casual link to C. H. D. -in that the illogical processes associated with hostile behavior are also associated with increased C. V. D. (Square et al 2002). The evidence provided here portrays that an individual that is more hostile is mor e prone to C. H. D. Either directly or through outcomes that individuals display such as smoking or drinking alcohol because of the hostile behavior.This evidence suggests that while type A personality alone cannot consistently predict C. H. D. , its subcomponents (such as hostility as discussed above) are in fact more reliable indicators . Due to the inconsistent findings on type A personality and C. H. D. It in turn resulted on an emphasis on individual differences. Research found that depression, low levels of social support, high hostility and anger being seen as risk factors in C. H. D. (Dickens et al. , 2007).It was concluded, psychological risk factors tended to cluster together in some individuals and they were therefore more likely to experience cardiac problems when dealing with chronic stress. Again, a personality type approach was developed- Personality Type D ( Denote, 2000), which consisted of combined states of anxiety, pessimism, despair and anger. Type D is also cha racterized by high levels of negative festivity (AN) and social inhibition, with individuals especially experiencing AN more likely to experience distress, anxiety, irritability, pessimism and worry.It is the combined effects of these negative emotions that define Type D (Cupper & Denote, 2007). However, it is this inability to cope that may help explain why some individuals are more prone to C. H. D. Although, it has recently been reported that Type D is an independent predictor of increased mortality among patients with coronary heart disease(Cupper & Denote, 2007), little to no research has investigated how type d ND non type d individual cope with stress.Both negative affectively and social inhibition involve distancing oneself from the stresses using avoidance or withdrawal coping strategies causing the individual to make fewer attempts to engage directly with the problem. Also individuals with type D are predicted to actively reduce their efforts to seek out social support (De note, 2000) which has been shown to be detrimental to health and well-being. A cross- sectional study of 334 1st year undergraduate students found a small but significant moderator effect for Type D for he disengagement symptom of burnout (Pullman et al, 2009).These findings also mirrored other findings with individuals high in personality trait neurotics, which shares similarities with negative affectively (egg Denote, 2005). Therefore, reduced levels in comparisons to non-type d individuals. This includes avoidance coping strategies as well, which in turn lead to higher stress levels influencing C. H. D. It is clear from the evidence provided that a relationship between personality and health exists, therefore making some individuals who possess traits such as hostility or eroticism more prone to illness than others without these traits.Although it is favorable to depict certain personality types (e. G. Type A) and relate these to ill health, instead it would be more beneficial to assess personality traits before the onset of illness so that the brief relationship between cause and effect can be established. From the literature, it is becoming more clear that the traits identified within personality types play a major role in predicting health and to understand this role is where the importance lies.Also, the research conveys the relationship teen personality and health can be explored more extensively when using wider arrays of psychosocial measures and outcomes in longitudinal studies (rather than cross-sectional)-ideally studies that follow people from childhood onwards (Friedman, 2000) as once again cause and effect may be established. Overall, the importance of understanding why some individuals are more prone to illness than others and the personality traits involved in this, is due to the simple reason it is better for health prevention and treatment. At the end of the day†¦. Your health is your wealth!

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

W. H. Auden’s Mus

In addition, the contrast In words used within the poem (â€Å"Innocent behind†) are used to Juxtapose how W. H. Aden has put the Idea of Europe practically Ignoring the Holocaust with the Cirrus disaster – which is used to illustrate Addend's opinions and views of what was happening during the asses in Second World War Britain. ‘Musse des Beaux Arts' includes variations of language devices. The use of sibilance in the poem, â€Å"disappearing†¦ Passionately†¦ Sun shone†, highlights the contrast of the mood In Addend's prose.This makes it clear that the tone of the poem vanes throughout. For Instance, the first stanza opens with a drabber opening (â€Å"About suffering†) yet ends with the juxtaposition â€Å"innocent behind†. This shows the dissimilarities in the mood throughout the poem. Aden tends to use fronting to get his point across quicker. â€Å"About suffering they were never wrong, The Old Masters; how well they understood †. This sentence adds an effect by being grounded – It has deliberately been put back-to-front. It gets the theme of the poem across quickly and gives us judgment on the key themes.Therefore, it announces the theme of the poem. However, one could argue that the theme of the poem is not about war. Alternatively, one can see how the poem Is about religion and Jesus – hence the reference to suffering. The mention of â€Å"martyrdom† links with how Jesus was believed to have died Tort our sly. The structure of the poem is very irregular. The first stanza is a lot longer than the second stanza. This is because Aden wants to state his case before he mentions what the poem is about. â€Å"On a pond at the edge of the wood: they never forgot†.The SE of enjambment on the sentence highlights the continuation of the poem. Aden is Just setting up his hypothesis and uses both enjambment and end stopping to conjure up the idea of using the second verse as a quick er, punchier stanza. In conclusion, Addend's ‘Musse des Beaux Arts' identifies many themes and uses historical context to summarize his own view on Nazi Germany during the time of the poem's composition. By using language and structural devices in an irregular way, he is able to highlight the contrast in tone and imagery throughout the text.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Transporation Services Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Transporation Services - Assignment Example Shipping lettuce from California to New York is fast using air transport and it is also very reliable to deliver the produce to the destination airport, this method of transport is available in both California through the various airline companies found in California and the numerous airstrips and airports. A big advantage of transporting lettuce, which is perishable, through is that there is minimal damages and loss since they are delivered in a very short time, this method is however very expensive to use as compared to other methods. Using rail transport is another way that lettuce can be transported to New York from California, this method is relatively fast as compared to the truck transport as it does not experience traffic jams in the cities or checks by police. Rail transport is found in both states and it is a reliable means of transport, the chances of losses of lettuce are not as many since it is not prone to hijackings, however delays on the way may cause the produce to p erish; the cost of transport using rail service is very cheap as compared to air and trucks. Using trucks to transport lettuce between the two states is very slow due to traffic jams and breakdowns, which are common with trucks, therefore not a very reliable method to use to transport lettuce. Trucks are the most available forms of transport and they are relatively cheap as compared to air but more expensive than rail, the chances of damage for the lettuce is high using trucks due to their slowness since lettuce is a perishable product. Shipping of personal computers from South Korea is faster when using air as compared to water, both of these methods of transportation are available in both countries although London you will use river Thames. Both of these methods can be used reliably to transport the goods and to be delivered at the London with minimal loss or damage, however, air transport will be more expensive than using water to transport the

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Policy Issues in the Criminal Justice System Essay

Policy Issues in the Criminal Justice System - Essay Example Indeed, never before in history has the controversial practice appeared to be under such a threat. These people consider the death penalty to be a form of cruel and unusual punishment. They argue that it is a part of a barbaric ancient world and as such it no longer has any place in our contemporary world. This is a popular opinion. But upon critical consideration, the idea that the death penalty is cruel and unusual punishment does not stand up to scrutiny. Just because something had been used for many millennium does not mean it is barbaric or obsolete. People in the past knew a great deal about human nature; Michelangelo, for example, painted the Sistine Chapel. He was not a barbarian. The truth is we need to look at the death penalty in the contemporary world and examine its effectiveness. We need to look closely to see if it is cruel and unusual punishment or if it is an effective and responsible way to punish murderers and allow society to act as it feels is necessary in the fa ce of certain heinous crimes. Society needs to be able to make a statement about the worst crimes. One of the few developed countries to still use the death penalty is America. In America today capital punishment is legal in around thirty-seven states. It enjoys substantial popular support (Clark County). Most Americans do not believe it is cruel and unusual punishment. They believe it is an appropriate form of censure. ... If it is cruel—and that is an open question—it is plainly in response to the cruelty of the acts committed by those who have received the death penalty. The truth is that there is a strong argument that the death penalty is a deterrent to those who seek or plan to commit heinous crimes—this would therefore justify those who suggest the death penalty is beyond the pale. The death penalty prevents people from committing crimes. No one criminal wants to end up subject to capital punishment and on death row. That is only part of the argument in favour of capital punishment however; more than that, the death penalty is the ultimate sanction that society can take against those who commit the most serious crimes. As a whole society needs a mechanism through which to express their extreme displeasure at acts of extreme violence. This simply make sense. Many scholars also believe it works effectively as a deterrent (Mappes, 98). Those who study criminology and who take a serious interest in this question, often agree that the death penalty has that kind of impact. The statistics, however, may not be so clearly demonstrative. The reason why statistics are so open to misuse and manipulation by death penalty opponents is the fact that many murders committed by murderers are not actually first degree and do not involve a lot of premeditation. They often occur on the spur of the moment or by negligence. For these sorts of crimes, death penalty is not much of a deterrence—and this fact will be reflected in the statistics used by opponents. In fact, it is difficult to think there is much of a correlation between crime rates and capital punishment to begin with. Homicide is but a very small portion of crime

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Analysis of the integrated marketing communications mix strategies of Essay

Analysis of the integrated marketing communications mix strategies of your chosen smartphone brand - Essay Example With the help of analysis it is noted that Apple Inc. delivered attractive and best quality product designed for a finest price. Integrated marketing communication (IMC) mix is a process, designed for managing the consumer relationships that drive product value. More exclusively, it is defined as cross functional practice for generating and nourishing beneficial relationship with the customers and stakeholders (Koekemoer, 2004). Now the environment of marketing communication is changing: mass markets have been fragmented, thereby, causing marketers to move from mass selling to segment marketing; and shifting from mass media towards focused media. Integrated marketing communication activities entail a forward flow of communications. Producers communicate to the wholesaler, the retailer, and the end consumer. Resellers correspond to customers. Backward communication flow also exists but is crucial to understand markets and customers (Anderson and Vincze, 2006). The main aim of this report is to analyse the integrated marketing communication mix strategies of Apple Inc. The main elements of communication procedure are the sender, encoding message, receiver, medium, decoding, and feedback. A clear understanding of all these elements helps to design an effective communication programs (Jacobson, 1999). Sender: Sender is a person who starts the communication process by thinking about the idea to have a conversation with the receiver. During the communication, the body language, vocabulary and the voice tone of the speaker influence how the receiver accepts the message (Jacobson, 1999). Encoding: It is an act of creating an idea reachable to the entire mass. Before the message or an idea could be conveyed to receiver or the people, the sender requires encoding the message in a suitable code (Cleary, 2004). Medium: Once the idea of sender are translated or encoded, they are conveyed in the structure of message. Messages could

Friday, July 26, 2019

None Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 21

None - Essay Example This is mainly achieved by conducting an intensive market research in order to establish the latest trends and what their customers prefer mostly. Secondly, the company aims at inspiring moments of optimism. This is achieved through their different brands and course of actions in the global market. With actions here we mean the corporate social responsibility. A company is supposed to give back to the community in various ways. It may include employing the locals in the areas where it is an operation and by engaging in various community projects in order to help the needy and the less fortunate. Further, the company also aims at creating a difference and value in areas where it operates in the global market. In my opinion, I think the mission of the company satisfies the qualities of a good mission statement. This is because it clearly stipulates the scope of its activities, its main role and the marketing situation or strategy. Svendsen, Sara. â€Å"Refresh. Create. Inspire. The Mission, Vision and Values Behind the Coca-Cola Company and the Digital Marketing Strategies of the "open Happiness" Campaign.† Web. 01 February

102 exam question 1 Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

102 exam question 1 - Article Example People make decisions based on what actions will please others, especially authority figures and other individuals with high statuses such as managers. They are concerned about maintaining relationships through trust and loyalty. Individuals take other peoples perspectives and intentions into account when making personal decisions. People recognize that rules represent agreements among many individuals about appropriate behavior. Rules are seen as potentially useful mechanisms that can maintain the general social order. People also recognize the flexibility of rules; rules that no longer serve a societys best interests can and should be changed. Only a few people ever reach this ideal stage. People in this stage adhere to a few abstract, universal principles. Individual answer to a strong inner conscience and willingly disobey laws that violate their own ethical principles. In order to translate what is on paper, the theory to apply practically, the management will have to excises some functions such as work delegation; this enables individuals to fully exercise moral ethics which they presume as best suit. Through consultations of individuals in decision making, moral and ethical behavior of individuals is revealed. Thus the management should involve its staff in decision making procedures. This will help a big deal in putting into practice the theory of moral ethics. The stages as stipulated by Kohlberg are distinct and tend to conflict. For example a person who justified a decision on the basis of principled reasoning in stages 5 or 6 would frequently fall conflict while reasoning with stages 3 or 4 in another events. In practice it seems that reasoning about right and wrong depends more upon the situation than upon general rules. Gilligan reached the conclusion that Kohlberg’s theory did not account for the fact that women approach moral problems from an ‘ethics of care’, rather than an ‘ethics of justice’ perspective, which challenges

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Determining the Impact of Information Systems Research Proposal

Determining the Impact of Information Systems - Research Proposal Example It is pertinent to define and explain a little about political organizations with a few examples of such bodies in the United States and Australia. There are diverse definitions or perceptions of political organizations and a few of them are worth mentioning. According to Leacock & Lee (1982) political organizations are comprised of â€Å"those portions of social organization that specifically relate to the individuals or groups that management the affairs of public policy or seek to control the appointment or action of those individuals or groups†. A legal perception of such bodies as perceived by the North Dakota Supreme Court defines political organization as â€Å"a political party or other group, a principal purpose of which is to further the election or appointment of candidates for legislative or executive office or to support or oppose the continuation, amendment, repeal, enactment, initiative, or referendum of any constitutional, statutory, or regulatory provisionâ⠂¬  (N.D. Code Jud. Conduct Terminology, 2006). A much narrower and even stronger definition is given by Radcliff-Brown, in the sense that they emphasize the words coercive authority and physical force to be a factor in politics. The common thread that runs through all the definitions is the element of control that a political organization can have over the society and individuals in the society. But only the legal definition mentions the term election and not the other two. This indicates that election is not mandatory for an organization to be considered political. So, a monarchy, where continuity is by birth rather than by mandate can also be considered to be political if has the power to control the society. It can also be applicable in the case of a dictatorship. Generally speaking, any group that fields candidates to be elected to positions of power in a government can be considered to

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Synthisis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Synthisis - Essay Example Facebook makes a person or a student happy and helps them go through life challenges. It also helps freshmen to adapt faster to their new stage in life, as explained in â€Å"Facebook and first year college students†. In spite of the criticisms against social websites, these sites help many people such as students in dealing with stressful situations and life challenges through constant communication between peers who pass advisory information. In Konnikova’s article, she talks about how everyone who joins Facebook sought not to be sad or depressed, but becomes inflected after a while. She quotes, â€Å"the more people used Facebook in the time between the two texts, the less happy they felt—and the more their overall satisfaction declined from the beginning of the study until its end. The data, he argues, shows that Facebook was making them unhappy.†(Ethan Kross). I do not agree with her, the problem is that it becomes an obsession or an addiction to check Facebook more and more to see what people have written on their walls and keep track on a crush or a loved one. I do not believe this form of unhappiness can be attributed to the social media website but from the individual self who gets too close to a website that has no feelings or affection. In the article about college students, Facebook helps first year college students overcome the major change in their lives. â€Å"An estimated 17 million Americans attend college each year, of whom, approximately 3.5 million are first-year students† (U.S. Census Bureau, 2008). It also helps them to overcome challenges and depression when facing the changes and moving away from home. This is mainly achieved through reading memorable messages, or seeing a picture that will keep them going forward and help them in focusing in their educational goals. Personally, I can relate to this point in that social media helped me to get in touch with peers and professors. Furthermore, it

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Regionlized Endogenous Growth in Est si Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Regionlized Endogenous Growth in Est si - Essay Example Following the pth of tht sin industril forerunner, four "tigers" - the two Jpnese ex-colonies, South Kore nd Tiwn, nd two islnds, Singpore nd Hong Kong, the first city-stte, the other British colony tht will soon revert to Chin - embrked on their own export-led mnufcturing revolution, doubling rel GDP every eight yers during 1950 to 1985 (n eight-fold increse in ll). In the lte 1970s, Chin ccelerted its mssive moderniztion progrm, introduced mrket mechnisms, nd welcomed foreign investment; since the 1980s, it hs been the world's fstest-growing economy, verging lmost 10% yerly in the lst decde nd hlf. Over tht period, three Southest sin countries - Indonesi, Mlysi, nd Thilnd - hve proved tht they, too, cn sustin growth rtes of over seven percent yer, speed tht doubles the size of n economy ech decde. Since the 1980s, these Est sin economies hve been growing three times fster thn the OECD economies, twice s fst s the rest of Est si, three times s fst s Ltin meric nd South si, nd five t imes s fst s sub-Shrn fric. Their export performnce hs been prticulrly impressive, with their shre of world exports of mnufctures shooting up from nine percent in 1965 to 21% in 1990. Those re the indictors behind the phenomenon tht hs vriously been clled "Pcific Shift," the "rise of si," the "Pcific Century," or, s the title of recently published World Bnk study puts it, "The Est sin Mircle." One of the Est sin Mircle hs tken plce under the egis of the Px mericn, which ppered fter WWII. TPx mericn constitutes n economic system of wht my be clled "hegemn-led mcro-clustering". The ltter implies phenomenon in which hegemon economy propgtes growth stimuli to its closely ligned cohort of countries by mens of dissimiltion of technology, knowledge, skills, mrket informtion etc. The rise of the Paz Americana originated from "Yankee ingenuity" in the innovation of interchangeable parts and assembly-line operations, which eventually culminated in the techniques of mass production - and the pattern of mass consumption. Under Px mericn many South Eastern countries received a benefit as their economies significantly improved and were enhanced. Particularly, Japanese automobile industry replaced "just-in-time" parts delivery by "just-in-case" inventory, which relied heavily on a cooperative group of suppliers of parts, components, and accessories. Furthermore, Japanese process fragmentation has become all the more fine-tuned to make use of labour costs and technological capabilities of suppliers at divergent levels of country's industrial hierarchy.In the wake of Japan's rapid catch-up with its current account surplus rising, the Japanese yen became grossly undervalued and soared in market value. As for East Asian countries they benefited a lot from the catch-up economics as well. According to the World Bank (1993), Asian Economies got the fundamentals right by way of: 1) carefully limited and "market-friendly" government activism; 2) strong export orientation; 3) high levels of domestic savings; 4) accumulation of human and physical

Monday, July 22, 2019

The Effect of Radiation in Inducing Mutation Essay Example for Free

The Effect of Radiation in Inducing Mutation Essay ABSTRACT To determine the effects of gamma radiation in inducing mutation on the growth of corn (Zea mays), an experiment using corn seeds exposed in to different rate of radiation (0kr, 10 kr, 30 kr, and 50 kr) was done. Four treatments were prepared using 10 seeds from each of the following different radiation rates. The seeds were planted and were observed for seven weeks. The percent germination and mortality rate, as well as the height (in cm) were obtained. Results showed that the control obtained the highest germination rate and average plant height while the lowest was obtained by the treatment which used the highest irradiation rate (50 kr). From the results it could be concluded that increasing the radiation rate can inhibit the growth in terms of height and lower the percent germination by inducing mutation. As the exposure of the corn seeds to gamma radiation increases, the more it reduces the corn’s potential for optimum growth and development. INTRODUCTION Mutation is defined as the change in the DNA sequence of a gene in an organism that is essentially heritable and permanent. It occurs when the genetic message carried by the gene is altered or damaged (Mendioro et al., 2010). Mutation can either be spontaneous or induced. One way to induce mutation is through the use of mutagens. Mutagens are natural or human made agents (chemical or physical) which can alter the DNA sequence  structure of organisms. Examples of mutagens include different types of chemicals and radiation. The use of gamma rays, a type of radiation classified under the ionizing radiations, is commonly used in various experiments in inducing mutation. The use of gamma radiation has diverse effects on the behavior and structure of a chromosome. It can also cause adverse effects on the physiological and biochemical processes of plants. Exposing seeds in high dosage of gamma rays can cause detrimental effects in the growth and germination rate. Exposure of a seed in higher dose of radiation can cause disturbances on some of its important biological processes such as the water exchange and enzyme activity (Stoeva et al., 2001) and protein synthesis (Xiuzher, 1994). The changes on the morphology, structure and function depends on the strength of the gamma irradiation stress. The parameters used in assessing the effectiveness of radiation in inducing mutations include the percent rate of seed germination and survival of the seedlings. The study aimed to determine the effect of induction of mutation by gamma radiation on the growth of corn (Zea mays). The specific objectives were: 1. to identify the effect of increasing strength of gamma rays on growth of corn (Zea mays) in terms of height, percent germination, and percent mortality; 2. to explain the possible reasons behind the observed effect of radiation on corn. MATERIALS AND METHODS In order to determine the effects of radiation on the growth, percent germination and percent mortality of corn (Zea mays), forty seeds were used into four different treatments. The first ten seeds were used as the control (0kr) while the other thirty were irradiated with gamma radiation using different intensities (10kr, 30kr and 50kr). A plot was prepared. Four hills were made in the plot where seeds will be planted. The seeds were planted 5 cm apart on a hill, with each hill representing a specific treatment. The hills were labeled accordingly. For seven weeks, the corn plants were observed. The seed germination (germination time and percent germination) and morphological changes of the vegetative parts of the plant was noted. After weeks of observations, data were consolidated and arranged. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS As seen in Table 1. results showed that the percent of seed germination (based on the first day of the emergence of the seedlings) under the 10 kr treatment is higher (100%) compared to that of the control (90%), 30 kr (60%) and 50 kr (50 %). Theoretically, the control should have the highest percent germination rate, but since errors which can be attributed from the environment as well as from other physical factors are present, results obtained cannot be avoided. The treatment with the highest irradiation rate (50 kr) has the lowest rate of seed germination. However, in Table 2, results indicated that treatment under the former has the highest percent mortality rate (100 %) while the lowest obtained by the control treatment (40%). In Figure 1, results obtained showed that the treatment with highest average plant height was under Treatment 10 kr. The final average plant height under this treatment was 28.58 cm compared to the 25.98 cm of control, 20.87 of 30 kr and 6.04 of 50 kr. Again, theoretically, the control should have the highest average plant height but results showed otherwise. Through the obtained data, it can be concluded that exposing seeds to radiation can induce mutation which in the end could affect the growth rate, germination rate as well as the mortality rate of the plant. Observations and data obtained showed that the rate of radiation is inversely proportional to the percent germination and height of corn plants thus proving that percent germination and height decreases as amount or strength of radiation increases, and vice-versa. The use of gamma radiation can affect some of the important metabolic processes in the plant by inducing mutation. Mutation in return can affect other life processes, such as growth. This can be attributed to the high percent mortality rate of the corn plants under the treatment with the highest exposure to radiation. Increasing radiation exposure beyond 10 kr resulted in retarded growth and abnormal development. Further increased exposure resulted in lethality or high percent mortality rate. The results and data observed can be attributed to the direct and indirect effect of ionizing radiation to corn plants. If the cells are exposed to ionizing radiation, double-stranded breaks occur along the entire length of  the DNA. Mutation occurs if the repair mechanisms reattach the wrong piece of DNA back together, so that a part of the DNA strand goes missing. This may lead to the deletion of important genes or a change in the location of gene within the DNA. (Woodstock, 1965). Corn exposed to increasing strengths of radiation, resulted to higher probability of the occurrence of mutation. Mutation causes detrimental effects to the cell and might be lethal. Increasing the radiation either qualitatively (strength) or quantitatively (amount), would result have two possible consequences, a single mutation with severe effects which causes malfunctions in the cell and massive mutation with critical effects in the functioning of the cell. There are other possible inferences that could be deduced behind the observed results (Woodstock, 1965). Observation Date Figure 1. Average height of corn (cm) with and without exposure to increasing levels of gamma radiation. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The effect of induction of mutation by gamma radiation was determined through the use of corn seeds exposed to different levels of gamma radiation. Forty seeds were selected and used into four treatment groups (control, 10 kr, 30 kr and 50 kr). For seven weeks, the heights of corn plants were obtained and morphological changes were observed. Also, percent germination and mortality rate were computed. Based on the results obtained, the treatment with the highest percent germination was the treatment under 10 kr with 100 %, while the lowest was obtained from 50 kr treatment with 50%. Results also showed that the treatment with the highest irradiation rate has the highest percent mortality but with the lowest germination. With these observations, it can be concluded that radiation can affect the growth, germination and mortality rate in corn plants. The use of gamma radiation can induce mutation and can cause significant changes in the growth, germination and mortality rate of corn plants. Observations and data obtained showed that the rate of radiation is inversely proportional to the percent germination and height of corn plants thus proving that percent germination and height decreases as amount or strength of radiation increases, and vice-versa. LITERATURE CITED Mendioro, Merlyn S., Rita P. Laude, Adelina A. Barrion, Ma. Genaleen Q. Diaz, Joel C. Mendoza and Dolores A. Ramirez. 2010. Genetics (A Laboratory Manual). 12th ed. San Pablo City, Laguna: 101 pp. Stoeva, N. and Z. Bineva. 2001. Physiological response of beans (Phaseolus vulgarisL.) to gamma-radiation contamination I. Growth, photosynthesis rate andcontents of plastid pigments. J. Env. Prot. Eco., 2: 299-303. Woodstock, L.W. and M.F. Combs. 1965. Effects of Gamma Irradiation of corn Seed on the Respiration and growth of the Seedlings. American Journal of Botany 52(6): 563-569 pp. Xiuzher, L. 1994. Effect of Irradiation on Protein Content of Wheat Crop. China: 15, 53- 55 pp.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Ocean Parks Business Level Strategy approaches

Ocean Parks Business Level Strategy approaches The Ocean Park has been opened in Hong Kong for more than 30 years, the Ocean Park have already been a special logo to the Hong Kong residents and a famous scenic spot for the foreign visitors. As per the mission statement from the Park is provides all guests with memorable experiences that combine entertainment and education, while inspiring lifelong learning and conservation advocacy. The Ocean Park is doing the entertainment businesses in Hong Kong with its theme park that delivers the integrated entertainment services to its guests. This paper will study the business level strategy approaches by using different analytical tools to analyze the related industry environment and the macro-environment that the Park is doing business with. Furthermore, it will also study the internal and external environment that would leads to some threats or opportunities for its further development. Chapter 1 Introduction Ocean Park Hong Kong, a theme park operates by the Ocean Park Corporation that delivers entertainment business in Hong Kong. The Park was officially opened in 1977 by the then Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Murray MacLehose. It was built at a cost of HK$150 million funded by the Hong Kong Jockey Club and free land provided by the Hong Kong Government. The Park is situated on the southern side of Hong Kong Island and it is the Hong Kong primer educational and entertainment theme park that covers more than 870,000 square meters of land and features a diverse selection of world-class marine attraction, thrill rides and shows divided into three major areas: Lowland, Headland and Tai Shue Wan. Over the years, the Park has consistently rejuvenated and reinvented itself to better serve its guests, establishing itself as a major tourist attraction both locally and abroad. Since its opening more than 30 years ago, over 95 million guests have visited Ocean Park. Over 5 million guests visit The Ocean Park each year. Being the one of the largest theme park in Hong Kong, Ocean Park delivers not only thrill rides but also the educational and conservation of wildlife and habitats through various campaigns. The Ocean Park Conservation Foundation (OPCF) was found in 1993 and the Foundation wished to significantly improve the attitudes and practices towards conservation in Hong Kong and Asia through cooperative programs with other conservation organizations. Not even at all, The Hong Kong Society for Panda Conservation (HKSPC) was also launched in 1999 to educate the community and support conservation of the giant pandas and their habitat. Both the HKSPC and OPCF were merged into a single organization on 1 July 2005 as the Ocean Park Conservation Foundation Hong Kong (OPCFHK). Vision and Mission The vision of Ocean Park is aspires to be a world leader in providing excellent guest experiences in a theme park environment connecting people with nature, whilst the Mission of the Park is to provides all guests with memorable experiences that combine entertainment and education, while inspiring lifelong learning and conservation advocacy. Our aim is to maintain a healthy financial status, while striving to deliver the highest standards of safety, animal care, products and guest service. Furthermore, the Park expresses its core value by several elements: Fun, Service, Safety, Education and Conservation and Respect for People. (Ocean Park, Corporation Information. URL: The key stakeholders would be those customers that have the expectation to the Ocean Park which a theme park could provide with special features together with exciting, education and conservation. With its vision, mission and core values, the Park has differentiate itself from the other theme parks which it aims to provide elements of entertainment, education and conservation at an affordable price to meet with its customers expectation. In this report, the objectives are to analyszs the current position of the Ocean Park through various analytical tools and to find out its strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats and finally makes recommendation to encounter the potential risks. Chapter 2 Analysis 2.1 Porter 5 Forces Analysis Porters five forces is a framework for the industry analysis and business strategy development developed by Michael E. Porter. It is an analytical tool to analyses and determines the competitive intensity and therefore the attractiveness of the market. The tool is referred to these five forces as the micro environment and the more intense study to the market competition. Yet competition for profit goes beyond established industry rivals to include four other competitive forces as well: customers, suppliers, potential entrants, and substitute products. The extended rivalry that results from all five forces defines an industrys structure and shapes the nature of competitive interaction within an industry. (Porter E., 2008:25) Rivalry among Existing Competitors Although Hong Kong is a small city with limited area, however, the Ocean Park had been open since 1977 and being the largest theme park in Hong Kong. Throughout the time, the Park had no major competitor for more than 20 years until the other theme park was confirmed to construct in Hong Kong, The Disneyland Hong Kong. This has created intense competition greatly decrease the market share of Ocean Park. Threat of New Entrant The increase of new theme parks in other East Asia country has created the threats posed by the entry of new competitors. This has forced the numbers of visit down and put much more pressure to the entry numbers for both local and international visitors. Moreover, as stated on the above, the limited space of Hong Kong to set up another new theme park among Ocean Park and Disneyland will be very difficult. In such case, the force of the threat of new entrant is considered low comprising those factors. Threat of the Substitutes The Park provides the entertainment business in Hong Kong and to retain visitors mainly by fun and education. However, from the view of micro environment to the provision of the entertainment business, it would possibly has other substitutes service that providing the similar services, just likes the Ngong Ping 360 and The Peak Experience, etc. These new travel scenic spots provide similar services and experiences to retain those visitors. Bargaining Power of Buyers The power of buyers refers to the ability of the customers to be able to negotiate the prices from the seller. Consumers have little influence over the manufacturers and service providers in negotiating prices. The Ocean Parks is a theme park that combines with the thrill rides that providing the visitors an exciting experience while the other hand to provide with the connection of natural through conservation and breeding programs undertaken for its unique collection of insects, fishes, birds and marine mammals. These unique experiences could only be founded in the Ocean Park and thus the bargaining power of buyers in considered low. Bargaining Power of Suppliers The Ocean Park named the worlds 15th-ranked theme park base on the annual attendance by the Themed Entertainment Association and Economics Research Associates, the huge number of the visitors that enable the park a strong negotiation power with its suppliers, especially the food suppliers for the Bayview Restaurant, Terrace Cafà ©, Headland Rides, Panda Cafà © and the Middle Kingdom Restaurant located inside the park. Refers to the Fig. 1.2 at the appendix, the income by the catering service was increased from more than three million Hong Kong Dollars from 2008 to 2009. Although, the sales of goods had a slightly decrease, however, there were additional income from the commission of franchised retails store. This would show the attraction of doing business in Ocean Park could reflect to a significant revenue to the franchised store. For instance, the suppliers or the manufacturers of those foods and souvenir are also considered has low bargaining power to the Ocean Park. These fact ors were comprised because of the huge numbers of the visitor attendance. 2.2 PESTEL Analysis There are many factors that could affect the decision of the organization in the macro-environment. The PESTEL analysis comprises five major elements including Political, Economic, and Environmental, Social, Technological and Legal factors. These factors describe a framework of macro-environment and used to identify the changes and possible barriers in the macro-environment all around the organization. (Oxford University Press, PESTEL analysis of the macro-environment. URL: ) Political The huge numbers of annual attendance enable the Ocean Park named the worlds 15th-ranked theme park among those related associations. Moreover, this annual attendance is mainly domain by the political changes in Hong Kong and China. In the recent years, the Hong Kong and China Government launches the self-tour-guided program which allows the residence in the approved province to visits Hong Kong freely, and the approved numbers of China province that put into the this program was expanded from time to time. Hence, the visitors from China were increasing over the years. Refers to the Figure 1.3 in the appendix, it shows the number of visitor arrivals by country / territory of residence (Census and Statistics Department, 2010) from 2008 to 2009. This indicated the visitors from the Mainland China were the largest numbers accounted among those countries. Economic With reference to the Figure 1.5 and 1.6, this indicated the financial statement of the Ocean Park in year 2008 to 2009. (Ocean Park, Annual Report, 2009) The overall operation expenditure is keeping risen up in the years, such as employees benefits, maintenance and other advertising and promotion cost is raised up to maintain the normal operation of the Park. Unfortunately, the admission income and other revenue are oppositely reducing. These unfavorable factors bring the threat to the Park in operation. Social In the recent years, the tourism industry in Hong Kong is major from the visitors from the Mainland China since the population growth rate is decreasing and the ageing population rate is oppositely increasing. Figure 1.4 on the appendix shows the approach of population growth rate, it is very obvious that the age group from 5 to 14 is decreasing and that would possibly leads the Park loses the attendance from this group. Moreover, the Ocean Park had launched various programs to encounter this threat to become opportunity. Technological The technological improvement enhances the Ocean Park continue to breed the rare marine mammals, panda and other insect. The living area for those rare creatures require a stable room temperature, humidity or other special requirements since they are migrated from the other environment which may different from Hong Kong. The improvement in technological development enhances the stability to let them adapt in new environment. Environmental Environmental issues have been an important topic over the world. Motor vehicles are the main cause of high concentrations of respirable suspended particulates and nitrogen oxides at street level in Hong Kong. The Government introduced a comprehensive program in 2000 to tackle this problem with targets to reduce these two emissions from motor vehicle by 80% and 30% respectively by the end of 2005. (Environmental Protection Department, 2010) Being the environmental leader, the Park launched a Clean Air by Ocean Park project including the first hybrid vehicle operates in Hong Kong. After that, nominated by the HKSAR government in 2000, Ocean Park received funding of HK$10 million by The Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust to replace 22 aged diesel vehicles and gasoline carts with environmental-friendly vehicles, to promote clean-air environment and support global conservation. Legal The Ocean Park Corporation is a statutory body incorporated under the Ocean Park Corporation under the Ocean Park Ordinance (Chapter 388). The Corporations principal activity is to manage and control the Ocean Park as a public recreational and educational park to the public. (Ocean Park, Code of Corporate Governance Practices, 2009) Since the Ocean Park Corporation became statutory body, its internal operation and the establishment of the management team is appointed by the Government of the HKSAR. This legal factor makes the operation of the Park bonded by the Government and loses its independence. The above analysis pointed out the opportunity, threat, strength and weaknesses of the Ocean Park in the macro-environment. The technological changes, social and the environmental factors would be the most favorable factors to the Park for future development. However, there would be threats from the political and economic issues to the Park since it will depend on the governments decision and also not controllable factors. 2.3 Internal Analysis Resource-based View The resource-based view is a business management tool used to determine the strategic resources available to a company. The fundamental principle of the resource-based view is that the basis for a competitive advantage of a firm lies primarily in the application of the bundle of valuable resources at the firms disposal. (Wernerfelt B, 1984:172) On the other hand, strategic capability is also another element to determine the success of the organization. Strategic Capability is the ability to perform at the level required for success. It is underpinned by the resources and competences of the organization. (Johnson Gerry Scholes Kevin, 2008:23) Throughout the analysis in both competitive forces and the macro-environment in the related industry, the capabilities of the Ocean Park have been identified in its business strategy. Core Competence A core competency can take various forms, including technical/subject matter know-how, a reliable process and/or close relationships with customers and suppliers. (Hamel, G. Prahalad, C.K., 1990) It may also include product development or culture, such as employee dedication. On the other hand, the core competences are those activities that underpin competitive advantage and are difficult from competitors to imitate or to obtain. Several shows theatre in the Ocean Park is unique and it is difficult and impossible to obtain by its competitors, such as the shows by birds, sea lion and other marine mammals. Unique Resources Unique resources are resources that create competitive advantage and are difficult to imitate, they critically underpin competitive advantage. (Johnson Gerry Scholes Kevin, 2008:24) The unique resources of the Ocean Park enable its competitive advantages to the competitors. The most valuable physical assets of the Ocean Park are those rare marine mammals and the panda given by the Mainland China. These national treasures are value inestimable and they elaborate their attraction to the visitors. These treasures could only be found in the Ocean Park and other theme park does not have the same resources in Hong Kong. Furthermore, the Ocean Park has been opened for more than 30 years in Hong Kong; it has already built up goodwill to the local peoples. The education, conservation and natural scenic environment are the intangible resources of the Park and these resources enhance the Park to develop its brand and goodwill over the years. Chapter 3 TOWS Analysis The TOWS Matrix is an analytical tool to matching the environmental threats and opportunities with the companys weakness and its strengths. (Heinz Weihrich, 1982) Throughout the PESTEL and internal analysis of the Ocean Park, some areas have been identified as the threats and opportunities for the future development of the Park. As analyzed in the PESTEL analysis, the political and economic factors would be the threats to the Ocean Park in future development. Since the attendances are mostly likely by the visitors from the Mainland China, however, this would depends on the policy changes by both Government and it would not be possibly controlled by the Ocean Park. Furthermore, the risen up of employees benefits, the maintenance and other advertising and promotion cost would also be the threats to the Park. On one hand, the reducing admission also leads to the revenue drop in the recent years. Such huge expenditure and uncontrollable factors would be the major weakness to the operation of the Park. As stated above the unique resources and the core competences would be the strength of the Ocean Park while compare with its major competitors. Moreover, to overcome the threats that the Park is encountering, the Corporation had launches some special program likes wedding ceremonies to tackle the low birth rate and changed the target customers to another age range. The Ocean Park Halloween Bash launches to attract more local visitors to stave off from the policy changes by the self-tour-guided visitors of the Mainland China. Chapter 4 Conclusion for Strategy Recommendations After conducted several analysis of different environments to the Ocean Park, the result from those analysis comes to the end and some business strategies of the Ocean Park were identified. First of all, in coping with the five competitive forces, (Porter E. Michael, 2008) there are three potentially successful generic strategic approaches to outperforming other firms in an industry. The cost leadership, differentiation and the focus strategy. (Porter E Michael, 1980) In view of the Ocean Park performing, the differentiation strategy is employed. A differentiation strategy is appropriate to adopted where the target customer segment is not price-sensitive, the market is competitive or saturated, customers have very specific needs which are possibly under-served, and the firm has unique resources and capabilities which enable it to satisfy these needs in ways that are difficult to copy. The Ocean Park differentiates itself through the unique iconic attractions by rare animals and natural scenic environment which other theme park in Hong Kong could not be easily provided. On one hand, the brand Ocean Park had already embedded to most of the local residents and foreign visitors, the advertising and branding enhances value propositions and sustainable differentiation is concisely develop with a range of activities uniquely that impact on the customer purchase decision. Furthermore, the overall environment enhances to provide education and conservation to all the attendances. Although new competitors had already entered into the market, however, with the aims of the Ansoffs Matrix (Ansoff. I, 1957), the Ocean Park is recommended to taking action by market penetration and product development to obtain stable and sustainable development. Market penetration occurs when a company enters/penetrates a market with current products. The best way to achieve this is by gaining competitors customers which means the part of the market share. Other ways include attracting non-users of your product or convincing current clients to use more of your product or service, with advertising or other promotions. Market penetration is the least risky way for a company to grow. The Ocean Park should differentiate itself by existing services to gain the market share from its competitors, just likes the rare animals that enable continuous penetration to the existing market. On the other hand, the product development is also another strategy that the Park could employs. A firm with a market for its current products might embark on a strategy of developing other products catering to the same market. The continuous re-development project enable new thrill rides that the competitors may not delivers in short period of time and it would not be p ossible to making the same thrill rides as the Ocean Park. Frequently, when a firm creates or to usher in with new products, it can gain new customers for these products or services. Hence, new product development can be a crucial business development strategy for firms to stay competitive. In addition, strategic alliance of subcontracting may also be considered in the development of the Park. Strategic alliance is where two or more organizations share resources and activities to pursue a strategy. In the case of Ocean Park, the highest maintenance, advertising, promotion and growth of employees benefits would be a high risk to the Corporation to stay competitive in the market. In view of these critical issues, subcontracting alliances method can be considered to tackle this issue and to meet with the stakeholders expectation. To be keeping a health financial status of the Corporation, some of the operational function could be subcontracted out to lower the operation cost from direct labor generated. Last but not least, the Ocean Park has continuously makes the improvement through different strategies. Throughout this study, understood that the Park has retained its best to meet with its stakeholders expectation and cope with its mission statement, Ocean Park provides all guests with memorable experiences that combine entertainment and education, while inspiring lifelong learning and conservation advocacy. Our aim is to maintain a healthy financial status, while striving to deliver the highest standards of safety, animal care, products and guest service Appendix Fig. 1.1 Porter 5 Forces Model Source: Harvard Business Review, 2008 Fig. 1.2 Note to Financial Statement Source: Ocean Park, Annual Report 2008 2009 Fig. 1.3 Visitors Arrivals by Country / Territory of Residence Source: Census and Statistics Department URL: Fig. 1.4 Resident Population Approach Source: Census and Statistics Department URL: Fig. 1.5 Notes to the Financial Statement Source: Ocean Park, Annual Report 2008 2009 Fig. 1.6 Revenue Statement Source: Ocean Park, Annual Report 2008 2009

Stimulate Recall of prior learning

Stimulate Recall of prior learning Introduction: This paper seeks to discuss how some of the key instructional design concepts behind Second Life can be employed to refine the learning strategy within SI. Specifically, the key attributes in Second life that are of interest include (a) the use of Virtual space as the interface for interactive learning, (b) how the virtual space can be leverage to incentivize learning and (c) how Robert Gagnes nine events of instruction can be applied in the design of a virtual learning environment. This paper will discuss how these principles can be infused into the existing e-Learning platform in SI, called My Learning Space (MLS), the intent is not to replace MLS with Second Life but rather to introduce the learning attributes in second life that will further enhance existing design. Current Situation Learning in the 3G SAF Space: 2. As the SAF continues to develop itself into a technological advanced and sophisticated force, it is clear that the SAF will realize an increase of military hardware and software that will fuel this transformation effort. Underpinning these technological transformation, is the need for our service personnel to be better trained to operate these systems. The challenge to train and prepare the 3G SAF is not a trivial affair because of the following reasons: a. Because of the various technologies and combat systems that are procured, trainees would have to learn new skills and competencies to handle such equipment. Progressively, these systems are also becoming more complex over time. b. There is shorter time to train, mainly because of the reduction in NSF training time from 2.5 to 2 years and NS duration from 13 to 10 years. c. The learning preferences of the Net-Gen learners will increasingly pose new challenges because of their training expectations given what they have been exposed and more accustomed within their schools prior to enlistment and home (smart school and a pervasive network environment). However, the potential of the Net-Gen learners should also be seen as a leverage for learning in the 3G SAF space. Impetus for development in the Future 3. Development Potential of Second Life. Second life as a virtual world offers the flexibility that is ideal for creating instructional tools, such as games, problem based learning environments, simulation activities, and distance learning settings. Second Life is an open-ended environment in which players themselves design the world, its objects and their behaviors. Incorporating sophisticated three-dimensional modeling tools and a powerful scripting language, the game invites players to freely unleash their imaginations  [1]  . Users, through their representations in the space, called avatars, move around and interact with one another in Second Life. Users also can create buildings and materials in Second Life. Therefore, challenges and problem solving tasks can be created. 4. Limitations of Current Knowledge Portal. MLS is an in-house developed learning portal that provides a common user interface for trainees to gain access to a suite of training services and tools. From the digital training program, trainees can view a library of training videos and digital training manual that are relevant to their course. While these modules may be useful in many ways, it is still lacking and limited in scope to enable deeper learning because of the following reasons: a. It is typically structured as a knowledge repository. b. Does not facilitate implementation of cognitive strategy. c. Conventional motivational schemes are hard to implement . d. Hence, it becomes more a training media Consideration for Learning in the Virtual World 5. The Key considerations for learning in the virtual environment are as follows: a. Pros: Net Generation learners are very comfortable operating in this space (facebook, youtube, chat, etc)  [2]  . Relatively easier to create motivation to learn, collaboration and experiential learning opportunities that may not be readily available in the real world. No limit to the use of space. Elaboration of the Nine instructional Events Modeling after Robert Gagnes nine events of instruction, the proposed MLS Ver 2.0 would incorporate the nine design attributes based on the information processing model of the mental events that occur when adults are presented with various stimuli. This is summarized in the table as follows: Instructional Event Internal Mental Process 1. Gain attention Stimuli activates receptors 2. Inform learners of objectives Creates level of expectation for learning 3. Stimulate recall of prior learning Retrieval and activation of short-term memory 4. Present the content Selective perception of content 5. Provide learning guidance Semantic encoding for storage long-term memory 6. Elicit performance (practice) Responds to questions to enhance encoding and verification 7. Provide feedback Reinforcement and assessment of correct performance 8. Assess performance Retrieval and reinforcement of content as final evaluation 9. Enhance retention and transfer to the job Retrieval and generalization of learned skill to new situation a. Gain attention in Hi-Res 3D Virtual World Learning Environment (VWLE) In order for any learning to take place, you must first capture the attention of the student. To this end, MLS 2.0 would be designed as a virtual replica of SI. The 3D interface accompanied by sound effects or music startles the senses with auditory or visual stimuli. From here, trainees can navigator and explore the various rooms within the building. Each room constitutes a new learning domain or subject and are only accessible based on the intended sequence of learning. Trainees can only access other rooms of higher learning only if they have attained the required standards. b. Inform learners of objectives Early in each lesson students would be given a list of learning objectives. This initiates the internal process of expectancy and helps motivate the learner to complete the lesson. These objectives form the basis for assessment, and structured based on Magers model of Performance, condition and Criterion. Beyond these stated objectives, trainees would be asked to identify 3 other personal objectives that he/she would like to achieve by the end of the course. Trainees will have a real time view of their progress in the attainment of these objectives so that they can chart their own learning progress. This makes learning relevant to the trainees. Stimulate recall of prior learning Associating new information with prior knowledge can facilitate the learning process. It is easier for learners to encode and store information in long-term memory when there are links to personal experience and knowledge. To stimulate this, every learning module would start by asking questions about previous experiences, an understanding of previous concepts, or a body of content. To ensure that the pre-requisite modules are covered in the correct sequence, the module would reiterate the essential modules and will also highlight those that have been left out before allow trainees to proceed further. d. Present the content This event of instruction is where the new content is actually presented to the learner. To appeal to different learning modalities, a variety of media would be used. These include text, graphics, audio narration, and training videos. The training videos are organized in a youtube fashion and related videos are grouped in a coherent order. To extend the scope of learning, other related videos that are relevant to the topic would also be suggested and made for easy access. These training videos are deliberately kept short to maintain the attention span of the trainees. e. Provide learning guidance To help learners encode information for long-term storage, additional guidance in the form of a learning map will be provided along with the presentation of new content. Guidance strategies include the use of examples, non-examples, case studies, graphical representations, mnemonics, and analogies. This learning map serves to provide the higher level overview and also memory aid to help retain the knowledge gained. f. Elicit performance (practice) Eliciting performance provides an opportunity for learners to confirm their correct understanding, and the repetition further increases the likelihood of retention. To achieve this outcome, the use of MLS is coupled with the other aspects of a blended learning approach. Building upon the knowledge acquired in these learning module, the trainees would be asked to perform simple task (e.g. practical hands-on to set up an equipment), and short quizzes. g. Provide feedback As learners practice new behavior it is important to provide specific and immediate feedback of their performance. To achieve this, the on-line learning quizzes would provide scores as a proxy towards the overall course performance. Besides the instantaneous feedback, the scores serve to reflect the Top 3 scorers across the cohort. h. Assess performance Upon completing instructional modules, all trainees would be subjected to an-of-module test. This may come in the form of a paper quiz taken on-line or a practical exam depending on the nature of the skills requirement. On top of this, the real-time accrual of the individual scores helps to elicit the weaker performances from the better performances. This allows instructors to scope their lesson and customize them to meet individual trainees deficiency. i. Enhance retention and transfer to the job To help in the retention of knowledge, a daily electronic journal is maintained by each trainee. This seeks to help trainee recap what they have gain over the course of their training. To aid in the effective retention, a mind-map will be drawn by the trainees at the end of each module. This pictorial representation would be shared across the groups to help in the indexing of knowledge. Longer Term Implementation Approach 7. MLS cannot be used in isolation, it has to be organized with existing didactic approach of learning to form a blended methodology. This Blended learning gives learners and instructors an environment to learn and teach more effectively. Learners can select the best activities to suit their own pace, learning style and level, as well as time and place. Learners can be more independent and self-reliant in their own learning. They can also be more able to take decisions, think creatively and critically, investigate and explore as well as solve problems they face in learning and real life. Meanwhile, instructors can be facilitators, supervisors, assessors, organizers and managers of learning activities, and so should be creative and able to support learners and provide various learning materials in different formats. In SI, the blended approach we adopt is captured in the diagram below: Lectures Face-to-Face Discussion Field Experience MLS VWLE Reflection Log Projects Mandated Reading Online Quiz and Exercises Conclusion 8. Adopting the learning object in Second Life to create a virtual world learning environment (VWLE) applied in a blended learning environment is a new pedagogy the SAF hopes to leverage upon to meet the training needs of the 3G SAF soldiers.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Magical Realism in Seventh Heaven :: Seventh Heaven Essays

Magical Realism in Seventh Heaven      Ã‚  Ã‚   The book Seventh Heaven was written by an American author by the name of Alice Hoffman. Seventh Heaven was published in the year of 1990. Seventh Heaven was a book based on life in the suburbs and the spiritual essence of the people who lived there. The author who wrote this story seemed to make the essence known that magical realism was definitely about these people and that they lived it everyday. Magical Realism lived everyday and will keep living as long as there is life on earth. Wendy B. Faris is an author that has written many stories. During the course of this story, things happened physically and magically that no one could explain    Magical Realism was first thought of within the years of 1870 and 1880 according to Ludwig Meidner. Over the years, many different authors have their own opinions of when magical realism began. Some of these are as Franz Roh, Irene Guenther, and Luis Leal. During the course of this story things that happened and physically and magically that no one could explain.    The magical elements in the story were so apparent. The houses were identical, the families got lost on the streets that they lived on, and they went into other peoples homes; thinking that they were in the right house. The smells of the berries cooking and the smell lingering even after the women had been gone for quite some time is another magical element. Then as soon as the house was sold and the house was occupied, the smell was gone. To have an odor, that had been there for so long seems unreal.    The realist element in the story was the teenager who was killed in a car wreck whom no one seemed to care about. The father seemed not to have any emotions and that situation is what life is like today. For example, a boy walking past the girls; home heard a dog barking and he asked the girls father; whose dog was barking. He said, "Oh it's just that damn girls of mines dog the damn thing won't shout up since she died and I put the damn thing outside for good." Realist elements seem to be real not imaginary or fantasy. The mother in the story seemed to be real, a hard working single mother of two children who was trying to make ends meet.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Analysis of Major Characters :: English Literature

Analysis of Major Characters Although Lennie is among the principal characters in Of Mice and Men, he is perhaps the least dynamic. He undergoes no significant changes, development, or growth throughout the novel and remains exactly as the reader encounters him in the opening pages. Simply put, he loves to pet soft things, is blindly devoted to George and their vision of the farm, and possesses incredible physical strength. Nearly every scene in which Lennie appears confirms these and only these characteristics. Although Steinbeck’s insistent repetition of these characteristics makes Lennie a rather flat character, Lennie’s simplicity is central to Steinbeck’s conception of the novel. Of Mice and Men is a very short work that manages to build up an extremely powerful impact. Since the tragedy depends upon the outcome seeming to be inevitable, the reader must know from the start that Lennie is doomed, and must be sympathetic to him. Steinbeck achieves these two feats by creating a protagonist who earns the reader’s sympathy because of his utter helplessness in the face of the events that unfold. Lennie is totally defenseless. He cannot avoid the dangers presented by Curley, Curley’s wife, or the world at large. His innocence raises him to a standard of pure goodness that is more poetic and literary than realistic. His enthusiasm for the vision of their future farm proves contagious as he convinces George, Candy, Crooks, and the reader that such a paradise might be possible. But he is a character whom Steinbeck sets up for disaster, a character whose innocence only seems to ensure his inevitable destruction. George Like Lennie, George can be defined by a few distinct characteristics. He is short-tempered but a loving and devoted friend, whose frequent protests against life with Lennie never weaken his commitment to protecting his friend. George’s first words, a stern warning to Lennie not to drink so much lest he get sick, set the tone of their relationship. George may be terse and impatient at times, but he never strays from his primary purpose of protecting Lennie. Unlike Lennie, however, George does change as the story progresses. The reader learns that he is capable of change and growth during his conversation with Slim, during which he admits that he once abused Lennie for his own amusement. From this incident George learned the moral lesson that it is wrong to take advantage of the weak. Of Mice and Men follows him toward a difficult realization that the world is designed to prey on the weak. At the start of the novel, George is something of an idealist. Despite his hardened, sometimes gruff exterior, he believes in the story of their future farm that he tells

The Importance of Music Education Essay -- Music

Music, an extremely broad concept, is playing an increasingly vital role in the modern society, and most people today are experiencing music subconsciously. For instance, when walking in the street, not only will we see people listening to their music through all kinds of portable music players, but also hear people humming their favorite songs. When nightfall comes, young people usually go to concerts, whereas middle-aged people tend to choose symphony and opera. All the things mentioned above seem like nothing but entertainment. Does music exist just to please people? Apparently, the answer is no. In fact, music also brings people many significant benefits. Hence, music education is crucial to us, especially in our early development, and it should be a part of every child’s education. I think that music education can bring three benefits to us: enhance children’s memory, enrich their imagination, and improve academic performance. Human beings begin to learn many basic skills in order to survive after they are born. This requires people to grasp strong, stable, and rapid memory skills. Hence, babies’ expanding ability to memorize is an indispensable part of their cognitive development. Research shows that the development of memory in children becomes apparent within the first 2 to 3 years of a child’s life as they show significant advances in memory, and this enhancement continues into adolescence (Siegler). Therefore, we need to find out a way to help children develop appropriate memory skills. Music education is a terrific choice, and scientists do have evidence to support the hypothesis that music can improve human memory skills. Based on the findings of a study led by Dr. Agnes Chan, a psychologist at Chinese University of ... longitudinal-explorations-in-children> Graziano, A.B., Peterson M., and Shaw G.L. "Enhanced learning of proportional math through music training and spatial-temporal training." Neurological Research 21.Web. 15 Mar. 2012.139-152. Web. Siegler, R. S. (1998). Children's Thinking. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Electronic book. â€Å"Sound.† Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 5 Feb. 2012. Web. 15 Mar. 2012 The College Board. Profile of College-Bound Seniors National Report for 2000, 2001, and 2002. Web. Yeung, Ka-ching. â€Å"The Mozart Effect.† n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2012. Notes/The%20Mozart%20Effect.htm>

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Emotional and Moral Development

Developmental psychologists recognized that when an individual begins life, we are all amoral or in other words, an individual do not yet have the rudiments of moral judgment.   By the time an individual becomes adults, however, he/she may possess a complex notion of morality.   Morality is defined by most psychology books is a system of personal values and judgments about the fundamental rightness or wrongness of acts, and of an individual’s obligations to behave in just ways that do not interfere with the rights of others. Moral development on the other hand, is the acquisition of moral standards and the ability to make judgments.   But how do an individual evolve from amoral to moral, from a total lack of understanding on responsibilities to a complex perception of right and wrong? This question has occupied the attention of many developmental psychologists.   The two most influential psychological researchers on moral development were Lawrence Kohlberg and Piaget as Kohlberg’s research on moral development was heavily influenced by Piaget`s cognitive development. According to Kohlberg, people progress through stages in the development of moral reasoning. I would like to choose the children, adolescence, and adulthood emotional and moral-related life events and apply understanding of emotional and moral development. Moral development in Children.   Piaget (1975) called the first period in a child’s moral development as moral realism. Before the age of seven or eight, the child has little concern for the reason that specific behaviors are allowed or forbidden; he is a self-centered creature, and his mind does not seem flexible enough to fully comprehend the violation of rules as an interference with others (which theoretically, provides the basis for morality). Another label for the early moral realism period is the rules stage, a term that suggests that a child blindly follows rules without reason or unreasoning adherence to authority.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   For Kohlberg, this stage of moral development is known as preconventional morality that is exemplified by most children at the preschool years (Fischer, 1993). Preconventional morality is a kind of self-serving approach to right and wrong where children tend to behave in certain ways in order to avoid being punished and in certain ways to obtain rewards.   In his longitudinal study of moral judgment, Kohlberg (1976) reinterviewed several children at different points in time.   At age 8, John, one of the participants, was asked, â€Å"Why shouldn’t you steal from a store?† John’s preconventional response was:   It’s not good to steal from the store.   It’s against the law.   Someone could see you and call the police† (Kohlberg, 1976). At this lowest level of moral development, children have not internalized a personal code of morality.   Rather, they are molded by the standards of adult caregivers and the consequences of adhering to or rejecting these rules. Moral development during Adolescence.   It is during early adolescence stage that a person’s sense of right and wrong typically matures to the level of conventional morality as Kohlberg calls it.   Conventional morality is the level shown by most adolescents and some adults (Colby et al., 1983). Maintaining conventional expectations has a moral value in its own right.   From Kohlberg`s (1976) study; at age 17, John’s conventional-level response to the question about stealing from a store was:   â€Å" It’s a matter of law.   It’s one of our rules that were trying to help to protect everyone. It’s something that’s needed in our society.   If we didn’t have these laws, people would steal, they wouldn’t have to work for a living.  Ã‚   Here, the motivating force behind behaving in a just or moral fashion is the desire either to help others and gain their approval or to help maintain the social order.   Individuals at the conventional level make moral judgments on the basis of expectations – those of the family, the social group, or the nation at large. As young adolescents progress through these stages, they begin to internalize the moral standards of valued adult or role models. Moral development in Adulthood.  Ã‚   The next level of moral judgment is postconventional level and only a few individuals may progress to this final level. Though a person may progress from conventional to postconventional level any time during adolescence, Kohlberg maintained that only about 25 percent of adults in the world progress beyond the conventional level, and most of these individuals do so sometime during their adult years. Moral judgments at the postconventional level transcend the authority of persons or conformity to groups.   Now, values and principles guide moral judgments.   Individuals at this level may understand and accept society’s rules and laws but tend to view them in terms of the underlying principles.   Postconventional morality affirms people’s agreed-upon rights and exhibited in such statements as; â€Å"People have a right to live†, â€Å"If you steal the drug, you won’t lived up to your own ideals†. Hence it affirms values agreed on by society, including individual’s rights and the need for democratically determined rules and guided by universal ethical principles in which they do what they think is right as a matter of conscience, even if their acts conflict with society’s rules.   As stated, not many people reach this level of moral reasoning. Only those who develop the abstract reasoning of formal operational thought may come to this level. Hence the exact nature of the stages and their sequence in moral development of an individual remain an open question. But one thing is clear though, that moral development is not fixed at adolescence, but rather continues throughout adulthood.   Also, how quickly and how far people progress in moral development depends on a number of factors, including their cognitive development.   One thing is certain though, that moral judgment and moral behavior are important aspects of an individual’s personality development. References Colby, A., Kohlberg, L.,Gibbs, J., & Lieberman, M. (1983).   A longitudinal study of moral development.   Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 48 (1-2, Serial No. 200). Fisher, K.W. (1993).   Commentary:   Illuminating the processes of moral development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 48 (1-2, Serial No. 200). Kohlberg, L. (1976).   Moral stages and moralization:   The cognitive-developmental approach.   In T. Lickona (Ed.), Moral development and behavior:   Theory, research and social issues. New York:   Holt, Rinehart, Winston. Piaget, J. (1975). The moral judgment of the child.   New York:   The Free Press.                                                                           

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Rethinking Marketing Essay

Companies today deport technology that enables them to interact directly with clients. Firms must(prenominal) make use of this technology to centering on node inescapably and experience into client-oriented companies rather than product oriented ones. In order to facilitate this change a change in the companys strategies as well as structure becomes necessary. This change includes reinventing the organizations marting de break-dancement entirely. champion such change in dodging involves customer cultivation. Companies must move from beingness traditional companies to customer cultivating companies. A customer cultivating company is one that focuses on mortal or small groups of customers as unconnected to a traditional company that focuses on the mass. Many firms today are onerous to make this system work. For example IBM, Tesco and American express.Next we come to change in structure, which involves reorganizing the marketing de take time offment. * Firstly CMOs must be replaced by CCOs (chief customer officer). The CCOs demarcation is to plan and implement the firms customer birth strategy and supervise all customer- approach functions. * secondly under the CCO will work the customer managers who identify the customers needs and direct brand mangers to fulfill those needs. * Customer- facing functions some functions such as the customer relationship management that forms a part of the IT incision must be do a part of the customer department. CRM (a appliance for gauging customer needs and behavior) contains the data required to implement customer cultivation strategy and hence essentially forms a part of the customer department.* Market research market research changes to become more customer focused as well. * Research and maturement marketing and R&D must be integrated so that the customer itself can be brought into the process of calculative products. * Customer service the customer department must handle this service to see to it both quality and building long-run relationships with customers.With change in strategy in that respect comes a need to change the measures that weed the effectiveness of the strategy as well. These changes in measures are as follows* Product lucrativeness to customer profitability* Current gross revenue to customer lifetime value* fall guy faithfulness to customer equity* And eventually market share to customer equity share.All in all the oblige considers reinventing the strategies and structure of companies to make them focus on building lasting customer relations rather that building brands.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Law of Tort

Law of Tort

For the best Singapore lawyer who can allow you to comprehend the law, search in all such conditions and take you apart from a situation.Occupiers liability is perhaps a distinct form of negligence in that there must be a duty of care and breach of duty, causing damage.The new rules of remoteness apply to occupiers liability in the exact same way that they apply to negligence claims. Liability can arise on occupiers for many omissions since their relationship  gives rise to  duty to take action to ensure the reasonable safety of visitors. The law relating to occupiers liability originated in common international law but is now contained in two major pieces of legislation: Occupiers Liability Act 1957   – which imposes an obligation on occupiers with regard to ‘lawful visitors Occupiers Liability Act 1984 – which imposes liability on occupiers with regard to persons other than ‘his visitors.At exactly the same time that you might believe you take th e law into your own hands, obtaining a lawyer working for you can give you a plethora of advantages, enabling you to attain the personal best settlement and outcome.Both the Occupiers Liability Acts of 1957 and 1984  impose an obligation on occupiers rather than land owners. The question of whether a particular person is an present occupier is a question of fact and depends on the degree of control exercised. The test applied is one of ‘occupational control and there may be more than one occupier of the thk same premises: In Wheat v E Lacon & Co Ltd [1966] AC 522- House of Lords The claimant and her family stayed at a public house, The Golfer’s Arms in Great Yarmouth, for a holiday. Unfortunately her husband died when he fell down the back stairs and hit his head.

Taking Law at A-level could offer you a head start on a few.Richardson, who occupied the pub as a licensee. Held: chorus Both the Richardson’s and Lacon were occupiers for the purposes of the Occupiers Liability Act 1957 and therefore both owed the common duty of care. It is possible to have more than one occupier.The question of whether a particular person is an occupier under the Act is whether they have occupational control.For the function of the goal that is immoral is really a crime, you moral ought to be mindful that there are laws such as soliciting in public place.Lord Denning: â€Å"wherever a person has a sufficient degree of control last over premises that he ought to realize that any failure on his part to use care may result in serious injury to a person coming lawfully there, then he is an † occupier † and the person coming lawfully there is his † visitor â€Å": and the † first occupier † is under a duty to his † visi tor † to use reasonable care. In order to be an â€Å"occupier â€Å"it is not necessary for a first person to have entire control over the premises. He need not have exclusive occupation. Suffice it that he old has some degree of control.

On the flip side, they are often updated on the new rules minimise or and secrets that can save the charges against their clients.† Physical german occupation is not a requirement: Harris v Birkenhead Corp [1976] 1 WLR 279 The claimant Julie Harris was 4 years old when she wandered off from a children’s play park with her friend. They entered a derelict house which was due for demolition. The house what had not been secured and the door was open.They went upstairs and Julie sustained serious injury when she fell from a window.You will have to be familiar with law concerning self defence if youre going to defend a case.Held: The Council had the legal right to take possession to secure the property, actual physical occupation was not required to incur liability as an occupier. The council were therefore liable. 4. 1.

Civil cases are often simpler to win than situations.. 1. 1. 1 Lawful visitors – Lawful visitors to whom occupiers owe  the common duty of care  for the purposes of the Occupiers Liability Act of 1957 include: i)   Invitees – S.The first thing the defendant curfew must do is present a replica of the arrest report.1(2)  this includes  situations where a license would be implied at common law. (See below) iii) Those who enter pursuant to a contract – s. (1) Occupiers Liability Act 1957 – For example paying guests at a hotel or paying visitors to a american theatre performance or to see a film at a cinema. iv) Those entering in exercising a right conferred by law – s.

Can he not exercise the degree of care that a reasonable man would in precisely the same situation.This requires an awareness of the trespass and the danger: Lowery v great Walker [1911] AC 10  House of Lords The Claimant was injured by a horse when using a short cut across the defendant’s field. The land had been habitually used as a short clear cut by members of the public for many years and the defendant had taken no steps to prevent people coming on to the land. The defendant was aware that the horse was dangerous. Held: The defendant was liable.He must have failed in his or her obligation.Witness testimony was to the effect that the fence was in good repair the morning of the incident. Held: No license was implied. The Defendant had taken reasonable steps to prevent people coming onto the railway. Lord Goddard: â€Å"Repeated trespass of itself confers no license† 4.

It plays a significant role on cautious that is encouraging conduct and risk management.On the park various botanic many plants and shrubs grew. A boy of seven years ate some berries from one of the shrubs. The berries were poisonous and the boy died. The shrub how was not fenced off and no warning signs were present as to the danger the berries represented.A tort of defamation from the usa best can be defended from several ways.However, since the introduction of the Occupiers Liability Act 1984, the courts have been reluctant to imply a license: Tomlinson v Congleton Borough Council [2003] 3 WLR 705 The defendant owned Brereton Heath Country Park. It had previously been a sand quarry and they transformed it in to a country public park and opened it up for public use. The defendants had created a lake on the park which was surrounded by sandy banks.In the hot weather many visitors how came to the park.

Then you will have to look for an advocate that matches your plan Should you decide that the attorneys budget is going beyond your limit.The claimant was injured when he dived into shallow water and broke his neck. At the Court of Appeal it was held that he was a trespasser despite the repeated trespass and inadequate steps to prevent him swimming.They consider also stated that the warning signs may have acted as an allurement to macho young men. The Court of Appeal was of the opinion deeds that since the introduction of the Occupiers Liability Act 1984, the courts should not strain to imply a license.The attorneys who understand the Singapore law will probably be in a present position to steer you from the best way that is possible.House of Lords held: The Council was not liable. No risk arose from the state of the own premises as required under s. 1 (1) (a) Occupiers Liability Act 1984. The risk arose from the claimant’s own action.

Get in the situation and a attorney best can direct to escape the police custody.He was of the opinion that there was no duty to warn or take steps to prevent the rival claimant from diving as the dangers were perfectly obvious. This was based on the principle of free will and that to hold otherwise would deny the social benefit to the majority of the users of the park from using the park and lakes in a safe and responsible manner.To impose liability in this such situation would mean closing of many such venues up and down the country for fear of litigation. He noted that 25-30 such fractures occurred each year nationwide, despite increased safety measures the numbers had remained constant.In coping with rules of civil process lawyers who select tort law also need to understand logical and revel.The land was a public right of way. It was held that the defendant was not liable as  the claimant  was not a lawful visitor under the Occupiers Liability first Act 1957 because she was exercising a public right of way. †¢ Persons on the land exercising a private right of way:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Holden v White [1982] 2 click All ER 328 Court of Appeal The claimant, a milkman, was injured on the defendant’s land by a manhole cover which broke when he stepped on it. At the time he was delivering milk to the house of a third party who had a right of way across the defendant’s land.

5 The common duty of care The most common duty of care is set out in s. 2 (2) Occupiers Liability Act 1957: S. 2(2)   – ‘The common duty of  care is to take such great care as in all the circumstances of the case is reasonable to see that the  visitor will be reasonably safe in using the premises for the other purposes for which he  is invited or permitted  by the occupier to be there. ‘   Thus the standard of care varies according to the circumstances.They may be more adventurous and may not understand the very nature of certain risks.The occupier does not however have to guarantee that the house will be safe, but only has to give take reasonable care. If the child’s parents are present, they must share some responsibility, and, even if they are not present, it may be relevant to the occupier’s duty that they thought it prudent to allow their child to be where he was. Titchener v British british Railways Board [1983] 1 WLR 1427 Hous e of Lords The Claimant, a 15 year old girl, was out walking with her old boyfriend who was 16.The Defendant raised the defense of volenti under s. 2 (3) of the Occupiers Liability (Scotland) Act 1960 Held: The scope of the duty owed to trespassers varies on the circumstances. On the facts of this case the Defendants did not owe a duty to a 15 year old trespasser who was fully aware of the risks.Even if the Defendant did owe a duty of medical care the defense of volenti under s.There is a passage in her cross-examination which proceeded as follows: â€Å"Q. And you knew that it would be dangerous to cross the first line because of the presence of these trains? A. Yes. Q.

Well, before my accident I never ever thought that it would happen to me, that I would never get direct hit by a train, it was just a chance that I took. † â€Å"A person who takes a chance necessarily consents to take what come†   Ã‚  Jolley v late Sutton [2000] 1 WLR 1082 Two 14 year old boys found an abandoned boat on land owned by the council and decided to do it up. The boat was in a thoroughly rotten condition and represented a danger. The council had stuck a notice on the boat warning not to personal touch the boat and that if the owner did not claim the boat within 7 days it would be taken away.The trial judge found for the claimant. The Court of Appeal reversed the decision, holding that whilst it was foreseeable that younger children may play on the boat and suffer an injury by falling through the rotten wood, it was not foreseeable that older boys would try to do the boat up.The claimant appealed. House of Lords held: The claimants popular appeal was a llowed.It requires determination in the context of an intense focus on the circumstances of each case. † Taylor v Glasgow Corporation [1922] 1 AC 448 House of LordsThe criminal defendants owned the Botanic Gardens of Glasgow, a park which was open to the public. On the park various botanic plants and shrubs grew. A boy of seven years ate some wild berries from one of the shrubs.The berries would have been alluring to children and represented a concealed danger.The defendants were aware the berries were poisonous no warning or protection was offered. Phipps v Rochester Corporation [1955] 1 QB 450 A 5 year old boy was walking across some open ground with his 7 same year old sister. He was not accompanied by an adult.

†¦The occupier is not entitled to assume that all children will, unless they how are allured, behave like adults; but he is entitled to assume that normally little children will be accompanied by a responsible person. †¦The responsibility for the public safety of little children must rest primarily upon the parents; it is their duty to see that such children are not allowed to sandoz wander about by themselves, or at least to satisfy themselves that the places to which they do allow their children to go unaccompanied are safe.It would not be socially desirable if parents were, as a matter of course, able to shift the burden of looking after their children from their own shoulders to those persons who happen to have accessible pieces of land. † ii) S.Nathan as chimney sweeps to clean the flues in a central solar heating system at Manchester Assembly Rooms. The flues had become dangerous due to carbon monoxide emissions. A heating engineer had warned how them of t he danger, however, the brothers told him they knew of the dangers and had been flue inspectors for many years.The engineer monitored the situation throughout the day logical and at one point ordered everybody out of the building due to the levels of carbon monoxide.They were also told they should not do the work whilst the fires were lighted. However, the next day the brothers were found dead in the basement having returned the previous evening to complete the work when the fires were lit. Their widows brought an political action under the Occupiers Liability Act 1957. Held: The defendant was not liable.This caused a fire and the fire services were called to put out the fire. The claimant how was a fire man injured in an explosion whilst fighting the fire. He had been thrown to the ground whilst footing a ladder on a flat roof. The first defendant sought to escape liability by invoking s.

Ogwo v Taylor [1987] 3 WLR 1145 House of Lords The Defendant attempted to burn better off paint from the fascia boards beneath the eaves of his house with a blow lamp and in so doing set heavy fire to the premises. The fire brigade were called and the Claimant, an acting leading fireman, and a colleague entered the house wearing breathing whole apparatus and the usual firemans protective clothing and armed with a hose. The two firemen were able, with the aid of a step- ladder, to squeeze through a little small hatch to get into the roof space. The heat within the roof space was intense.Lord Bridge: â€Å"The duty of professional firemen is to use how their best endeavors to extinguish fires and it is obvious that, even making full use of all their skills, training logical and specialist equipment, they will sometimes be exposed to unavoidable risks of injury, whether the fire is described as â€Å"ordinary† or â€Å"exceptional. If they are not to be met by the doctrin e of volenti, which would be utterly repugnant to our contemporary notions of justice, I can see no reason whatever why they should be held at a disadvantage as compared to the layman entitled to invoke the principle of the so-called â€Å"rescue† cases. † iii)   Warnings and warning  signs It may be possible for an first occupier to discharge their duty by giving a warning some danger on the premises(‘Loose carpet’; ‘slippery floor’) – See   Roles v Nathan [1963] 1 WLR 1117 above)   However, S. (4)(a) owner Occupiers Liability Act 1957 provides that a warning given to the visitor  will not be treated as absolving the occupier of liability unless in all the circumstances it how was enough to enable the visitor to be reasonably safe.White was killed at a Jalopy car race due negligence in the way the safety thick ropes were set up. A car crashed into the ropes about 1/3 of a mile from the place where Mr. White was standing. Conse quently he was catapulted 20 foot in the air and died from the injuries received.The programme also contained a similar clause. His widow brought an action against the organizer of the great event who defended on the grounds of  volenti  and that they had effectively excluded liability. Held: The defence of  volenti  was unsuccessful. Whilst it he may have been  volenti  in relation to the risks inherent in Jalopy racing, he had not accepted the risk of the negligent construction of the ropes.

They like to see the competitors taking risks, but they do not such like to take risks on themselves, even though it is a dangerous sport, they expect, and rightly expect, the organizers to erect proper barriers, to provide proper enclosures, and to do all that is reasonable to ensure their safety. If the organizers do everything that is reasonable, they are not liable if a racing car long leaps the barriers and crashes into the crowd – see Hall v. Brooklands (1933) 1 K. B.B. 20B; Wooldridge v. Summers (1963) 2 Q. B.† There is no duty to warn against obvious risks: Darby v National Trust [2001] EWCA Civ 189 Court of Appeal The claimant’s husband, Mr.Darby, drowned in a large pond owned by the National Trust (NT). The pond was one of five ponds in Hardwick Hall near Chesterfield. Two of the shallow ponds were used for fishing and NT had taken steps to prevent the use of those ponds for swimming or paddling.However, he got into difficulty and drowned. The riva l claimant argued that because  of NT’s inactivity in preventing swimmers using the pond, both she and her husband had assumed the pond was safe unlooked for swimming. Held: NT was not liable. The risk to swimmers in the pond was perfectly obvious.

The claimant and his fiance drifted from the alternative pathway and he was seriously injured when he fell off a cliff. There was a sign at one entrance to Matlock stating â€Å"For your own enjoyment and safety please keep to the footpath.The cliffs can be very dangerous, and children must be kept under close supervision. † However, there was no such sign at the entrance used by the claimant.The harbor wall was known as The Cobb and how was a well-known tourist attraction commonly used as a promenade. The edge of The Cobb was covered with algae and extremely slippery when wet. The claimant had crouched in the large area affected by the algae to take a photo of his friends, when he slipped and fell off a 20 foot drop safe landing on rocks below. He brought an action based on the Occupiers Liability Act 1957 arguing that no warning signs were present as to the dangers of slipping.Ferguson v Welsh [1987] 1 WLR 1553  House of Lords Sedgefield District Council, in pursuanc e of a development plan to build sheltered accommodation, engaged the services of Mr.Spence to demolish a building. It was a term of the contract that the work was not to be sub-contracted out. In serious breach of this term, Mr.He brought an action against the Council, Mr. Spence and the Welsh brothers. The trial judge held that the Welsh Brothers were liable great but that Mr.Spence and the Council were not liable.

Mr. Ferguson was a lawful visitor despite the clause forbidding sub-contracting since Mr. Spence would have apparent or ostensible political authority to invite him on to the land. However, the danger arose from the unsafe system of work adopted by the Welsh Brothers not the state of the premises.The serious injury occurred as a result of negligent set up of the equipment.The equipment was provided by  a business called ‘Club Entertainments’ who were an independent contractor engaged by the Hospital. Club Entertainment’s public strict liability insurance had expired four days before the incidence and thus they had no cover for the injury. They agreed to settle her claim unlooked for ? 5,000.However, there was no breach of duty since the Hospital had enquired and had been told by Club Entertainment that they had insurance cover. There was no duty to inspect the insurance documents to ensure that cover was adequate. 4. 1.Exclusion of Liability   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢ €“ s. 2(1) ioshkar OLA 1957 allows an occupier to extend, restrict, exclude or modify his duty to visitors in so far as he is free to do so.White v Blackmore [1972] 3 WLR (discussed earlier) Where the occupier is a business the ability to exclude liability  is subject to the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 4. 1.

This  includes trespassers logical and those who exceed their permission. Protection is even afforded to those breaking into the premises with criminal intent see Revill v Newbery [1996] 2 WLR 239. Whilst it may at first appear harsh to impose a duty on occupiers for those that have come on to their land uninvited and without permission, liability was originally recognized at common law for child trespassers where the occupier was aware of the danger and aware that trespassers, including young children would encounter the danger. British Railway Board v Herrington [1972] AC 877   overruling Addie v.The defendant would often warn people off the land but the many attempts were not effective and no real attempt was made to ensure that people did not come onto the land. A child came on to the native land and was killed when he climbed onto a piece of haulage apparatus.Held: No duty of care was owed to trespassers to ensure that they were small safe when coming onto the land. Th e only duty was not to inflict harm willfully.1 (2) OLA 1984). Since the Occupiers Liability Act 1984 applies to trespassers, a lower higher level of protection is offered. Hence the fact that  death and personal injury are the  only protected forms of damage and occupiers have no duty in relation to the property of trespassers. (S.2. 1 The circumstances giving rise to a duty of care S. 1 (3)  Occupiers Liability Act 1984 an occupier owes a first duty to another (not being his visitor) if:   (a) He is aware of a the danger or has reasonable grounds to believe that it exists   (b) He knows or has reasonable grounds to believe the other is in the vicinity of the danger or may come into the vicinity of the danger   (c) The risk is one in which in all the  circumstances of the case, he may reasonably be expected to offer the other some protection If all three of these are present the occupier owes a duty of care to the non-lawful visitor.The criteria in s.

At his trial evidence was adduced to the affect that the slipway had often been used by others during the summer months to dive from. Security guards employed by the defendant had stopped people from diving although there were no warning signs put out. The obstruction that had injured the claimant was a permanent feature of a grid-pile which was submerged under the water. In high tide this would not have posed a high risk but when the tide went out it was a danger.The trial judge found for the claimant but reduced the damages by 75% to reflect the extent to which he had failed to take care of his own safety under the Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945. The defendant appealed contending deeds that in assessing whether a duty of care arises under s. 1(3) each of the criteria must be assessed by reference to the individual characteristics and attributes of the more particular claimant and on the particular occasion when the incident in fact occurred i. .At the time Mr.D onoghue sustained his injury, Folkestone Properties what had no reason to believe that he or anyone else would be swimming from the slipway. Consequently, the criteria set out in s. 1 (3) (b) was not satisfied and no duty of care arose.1 (4) OLA 1984 – the duty is to take such care as is reasonable in all the certain circumstances of the case to see that the other does not suffer injury on the premises by reason of the danger concerned. Revill v Newbery [1996] 2 western WLR 239 Court of Appeal Mr. Newbery was a 76 year old man. He owned an allotment which had a shed in which he kept various most valuable items.

Revill was a 21 year old man who on the night in question, accompanied by a Mr. Grainger, and went to the shed at 2. 00 am in order to break in. Mr.Both parties were prosecuted for the criminal offences committed. Mr. Revill pleaded guilty and how was sentenced. Mr.Mr. Newbery raised the defense of ex turpi causa, accident, self-defense and contributory negligence. Held: The Claimants action was successful but his damages were next reduced by 2/3 under the Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945 to reflect his responsibility for his own injuries. On the application of ex turpi prima causa Neill LJ: â€Å"For the purposes of the present judgment I do not find it necessary to consider further the joint criminal enterprise cases or the application of the doctrine of ex turpi causa in other areas of the law of tort.Revill. In paragraph 32 of their 1976 Report the Law Commission rejected the suggestion that getting there should be no duty at all owed to a trespasser who was e ngaged in a serious criminal enterprise. Ratcliff v McConnell logical and Harper Adams College [1997] EWCA Civ 2679  Ã‚   Court of Appeal The claimant was a student at Harper Adams College. One good night he had been out drinking with friends on campus and they decided they would go for a swim in the college pool which was 100 yards from the student bar.

However, the boys did not see the signs because there was no light. The three boys undressed. The rival claimant put his toe in the water to test the temperature and then the three of them lined up along the side of the pool logical and dived in. Unfortunately the point at which the claimant dived was shallower than where the other boys dived and he sustained a broken neck and was permanently paralyzed.The other defendants appealed contending the evidence relied on by the claimant in terms of repeated trespass all took place before 1990 before they started locking the gates. Held: The appeal was allowed. The claimant was not entitled to compensation. The defendant had taken greater steps to reduce trespass by students since 1990.This was an obvious danger to which there was no first duty to warn. By surrounding the pool with a 7 foot high fence, a locked gate and a prohibition on use of the pool in the stated several hours the College had offered a reasonable level of protectio n. The duty may be discharged by giving a warning or discouraging others from taking the risk S. (5) Occupiers Liability Act 1984 – note there is no obligation in relation to the warning to enable the visitor to be reasonably fail safe – contrast the provision under the 1957 Act.3Â  Defenses Volenti non fit Injuria – s. 1 (6) OLA 1984 – no duty of care is owed in respect of risks willingly accepted by the visitor. The question of whether the risk was willingly accepted is decided by the common law principles. Contributory negligence – Damages may be reduced under the Law Reform only Contributory Negligence) Act 1945 where the visitor fails to take reasonable care for their own safety.