Saturday, August 31, 2019

Hydration Lab Essay

The purpose of this lab is to determine the water of hydration of a compound (CuSO4) by heating it and hence find its chemical formula. It was determined that the compound contained 4 moles of H2O for every 1 mole of CuSO4, hence had the formula CuSO4 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 4H2O and Copper [II] Sulfate Tetrahydrate. However, the literature value was 5 moles of oxygen for every 1 mole of CuSO4 (Copper [II] Sulfate Pentahydrate – CuSO4 à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ 5H2O). As calculated above in Data Processing, this means that the percentage deviation from the literature value was 20%. This is significantly less than the percentage uncertainty, which was 37%. This should indicate that the random error was higher than systematic error, because while there was a high level of uncertainty, the literature value still falls within that value, meaning that the measurements were close enough. In reality, though, this high level of uncertainty says more about the inaccuracy of the measuring equipment than it does about the amount of systematic error. For example, it is possible that simply not all of the water was removed from the compound. On the contrary, the lab procedure instructed to continue trials of heating the compound and weighing it until the mass values were within 0.05g of each other. Those in this lab were only 0.01g apart – a difference which would not have affected the outcome of the lab. This means it is unlikely that there was a significant amount of water remaining in the compound. Evaluation of Procedure It cannot honestly be said that this lab was executed successfully. This is for two main reasons: 1. the false result 2. the high degree of uncertainty The first of these is surely the most important: this lab did not achieve the desired result. While the compound had a water of hydration of 5, the lab results said that this value should be 4. In some circumstances, such error could be tolerated – indeed, 20% is not terrible. However, the very purpose of the lab was to determine the compound, and this goal was not achieved. The second point is how uncertain the data really was. Based on the percentage of uncertainty, the water of hydration could have been anywhere from 2.5 to 5.5. This does contain the literature value, but has a range of more than half of that value (3/5). If the water of hydration could nearly have been 2 or 6, does this lab truly reveal anything? It gives a vague estimate of how much water there is, but little more. Much of the uncertainty was caused by an imprecise scale used in the initial measurements. Only after the procedure requested precision to two decimal places was a more precise scale used, and the initial measurements were still only accurate to 0.1g. Also, if the mass of compound used had been higher, the percentage error would have been less simply because it would be a smaller portion of the measured value. Improving the Investigation This lab did not meet its goal, hence definitely should be improved. The simplest change that could be made is to use the more precise scale from the beginning of the experiment. This would reduce the percentage error down to 6.7%, a much more reasonable value. This, however, does not solve the problem of the inaccurate value determined, because it is unlikely that this scale would have been any more accurate, despite being more precise. It is hard to pinpoint, therefore, exactly where the experiment went wrong, as it seems that the scales were not at fault but that a sufficient amount of water had been removed. There was certainly some kind of systematic error. One way that this error might be reduced, even without understanding its source, is to increase the amount of substance measured. Because the lab is about obtaining a ratio, this would not affect the result at all except hopefully to decrease the effect of any systematic error. This would, however, have the disadvantage of making the lab take longer, and steps might need to be added to ensure that all of the compound has a chance to dehydrate.

11 Facts About Elder Abuse Essay

1. Elder abuse most often takes place in the home where the senior lives. It can also happen in institutional settings, especially long-term care facilities. 2. Approximately 1.6 to 2 million seniors become victims of abuse or neglect in domestic and institutional settings in the U.S. every year. 3. The four most common forms of elder abuse are physical abuse (including sexual abuse), psychological and emotional abuse, financial/material abuse, and neglect. 4. Most elder abuse victims are dependent on their abuser for basic needs. 5. At least 1 in 9 Americans over the age of 60 has experienced some form of elder abuse. 6. Seniors who have been abused have a 300 percent higher risk of death when compared to those who weren’t. 7. In almost 90 percent of elder abuse and neglect incidents, the perpetrator is a family member. Two-thirds of perpetrators are adult children or spouses. 8. For every reported incident of elder abuse, five others go unreported. 9. Almost 50 percent of seniors with dementia (a decline in mental ability. Alzheimer’s is the most common type of dementia) experience some form of abuse. 10. While 91 percent of federal abuse prevention dollars are spent on child abuse, 7 percent is spent on domestic abuse, and only 2 percent goes towards protecting the elderly. 11. Legislatures in all 50 states have passed some type of elder abuse law. Types Although there are common themes of elder abuse across nations, there are also unique manifestations based upon history, culture, economic strength, and societal perceptions of older people within nations themselves. The fundamental common denominator is the use of power and control by one individual to affect the well-being and status of another, older, individual. There are several types of abuse of older people that are generally recognized as being elder abuse, including: Physical: e.g. hitting, punching, slapping, burning, pushing, kicking, restraining, false  imprisonment/confinement, or giving excessive or improper medication Psychological/Emotional: e.g. humiliating a person. A common theme is a perpetrator who identifies something that matters to an older person and then uses it to coerce an older person into a particular action. It may take verbal forms such as name-calling, ridiculing, constantly criticizing, accusations, blaming, or non verbal forms such as ignoring, si lence or shunning. Financial abuse: also known as financial exploitation. e.g. illegal or unauthorized use of a person’s property, money, pension book or other valuables (including changing the person’s will to name the abuser as heir). It may be obtained by deception, coercion, misrepresentation, undue influence, or theft. This includes fraudulently obtaining or use of a power of attorney. Other forms include deprivation of money or other property, or by eviction from own home Scam by strangers: e.g. worthless â€Å"sweepstakes† that elderly persons must pay in order to collect winnings, fraudulent investment schemes, predatory lending, and lottery scams. Sexual: e.g. forcing a person to take part in any sexual activity without his or her consent, including forcing them to participate in conversations of a sexual nature against their will; may also include situations where person is no longer able to give consent (dementia) Neglect: e.g. depriving a person of food, heat, clothing or comfort or essential medication and depriving a person of needed services to force certain kinds of actions, financial and otherwise. The deprivation may be intentional (active neglect) or happen out of lack of knowledge or resources (passive neglect). Hybrid financial exploitation (HFE): e.g. financial exploitation that co-occurs with physical abuse and/or neglect. HFE victims are more likely to be co-habiting with abusive individual, to have fair/poor health, to fear the abusive individual, to perceive abusive individual as caretaker, and to have a longer duration abuse. In addition, some U.S. state laws also recognize the following as elder abuse: Abandonment: deserting a dependent person with the intent to abandon them or leave them unattended at a place for such a time period as may be likely to endanger their health or welfare. Rights abuse: denying the civil and constitutional rights of a person who is old, but not declared by court to be mentally incapacitated. This is an aspect of elder abuse that is increasingly being recognized and adopted by nations Self-neglect: elderly persons neglecting themselves by not caring about  their own health or safety. Self-neglect (harm by self) is treated as conceptually different as abuse (harm by others). Institutional abuse refers to physical or psychological harms, as well as rights violations in settings where care and assistance is provided to dependant older adults or others. What causes physical abuse of an elder? The exact cause of physical abuse is not known. Poor or crowded living conditions may be one of the reasons it occurs. The following may increase your risk of physical abuse: You have learning or memory problems. You have a long-term condition, such as dementia, diabetes, paralysis, or stroke. You have no relatives or friends who can take care of you. You have difficulty getting along with others. The carer depends heavily on you for things such as money or housing. The carer drinks alcohol or uses illegal drugs. The carer has a personality disorder, depression, or another mental illness. The carer has a history of family violence, such as physical or sexual abuse. The carer has stress due to work, taking care of you, or financial problems. What are the signs and symptoms of physical abuse of an elder? Repeated falls or injuries, or old injuries that were not treated when they happened Scratches, bite marks, or marks from objects used for restraining, such as belts, ropes, or electrical cords Broken or dislocated bones Cuts or bruises, especially on both upper arms (grab marks) Scars or burns from cigarettes, irons, or hot water Blood or discharge coming from your nose, mouth, or genitals

Friday, August 30, 2019

Are the Classical Functions Put Forward in 1949 Still Valid?

Academics for years have been pondering the effectiveness of classical approaches to newer conceptualizations within management functions. Are the classical functions put forward by Henri Fayol in 1949 still valid and true today? , or are the theories put forward by other academics such as Mintzberg more valid? , or would the scientific type management concepts be more fitting?. To answer such questions this report examines two Journal journals, â€Å"Are the classical management functions useful in describing managerial work? † (Journal 1) and â€Å"Some effects of Fayolism† (Journal 2).By analyzing the different arguments put forward, I aim to conclude which theory is more appropriate to management study today. In journal 1, Carroll and Gillen examine newer conceptualizations of a manager’s job, and compare its findings to that of Fayol’s classical approach. The basis of this evaluation is to determine which approach is more useful in determining the rol e of management for the purpose of management education. Journal 2 draws on Fayol’s theory of a set of activities that are common to all organizations, to prove the developed management functions.It then evaluates and compares’ this notion with that of Fredrick Taylor with reference to management fashions to determine which theory is more accurate and relevant to managerial conceptualization today. Journal 1 merits Fayol’s theory, in referring to the significance it has had in studying management. In examining 21 books published from 1983 to 1986, he found that all books mentioned Fayol’s functions to some degree. Fayol’s four classical management functions (POLC): Planning, Organizing, Leading & Controlling, have been adopted as the foundation for management study for a long time.Upon evaluating Fayol’s theory, empirical studies expanded Fayol’s functions to eight functions, now known as the PRINCESS factors (planning, representing, investigating, negotiating, coordinating, evaluating, supervising and staffing). In support of Fayol’s claims, such functions apply to ‘all’ forms of management. The author refers to a number of studies and experiments to show that time invested in the classical functions have brought positive results in areas such as organization performance, unit performance, managerial mobility and higher production records.Upon the empirical studies, there is sufficient evidence to merit the classical approach in its functions being used by managers. However Mintzberg did not agree with Fayol’s theory. Mintzberg felt that â€Å"Fayol’s fifty year description of managerial work is no longer of use to us† (Mintzberg, 1971 pp 39). Mintzberg proposed a different model consisting of ten work roles; interpersonal roles (figurehead, leader and liaison), informational roles (monitor or nerve center, disseminator and spokesman) and decision-making (entrepreneur, d isturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator).However this model came under scrutiny by competing theorists. The author used many examples and refers to experiments done by other academics to criticize Mintzberg’s theory. McCall and Segrist (1980) limited the number of roles Mintzberg claimed, on the basis that certain roles overlapped each other and could not be called separate. Lau, Newman and Broedling (1980) limited the model to four factors (leadership and supervision, information gathering and dissemination, technical problem solving, and executive decision making) upon the findings of their experiment.The flaws within the Mintzberg Model rose due to the ‘observable physical’ approach taken. The journal stresses the importance of analyzing ‘neurophysiological activities’, as measuring physical managerial activities alone does not provide a comprehensive understanding of the managerial role, as it is rather a prominent ‘mentalâ₠¬â„¢ role. Non classical conceptualizations of managerial work (Mintzberg, Stewart etc. ) help define the nature of managerial work.However Fayol’s classical approach best conceptualizes management functions and a manager’s job, so it is the best source to be used for educational purposes. Journal 2 addresses two perspectives of management to evaluate the concepts of management fashion and its management recommendations. There is a logical supposition that organizations must strive to be unique in their business operations to have a fair chance of success, within competition. However the idea of management states presumes resemblance in all businesses, which calls for the profession of ‘managers’ to exist (Brunsson, 2008 pp33).This journal also recognizes the merit of Fayol’s theory in molding Management conceptualization. Furthermore recognizes the success of management recommendations listed by other theorists such as Mintzberg and Kotter, who ref er to Fayol’s functions to a respected degree. However the journal does not recognize any relationship between Fayol’s functions and organizational performance. Brunsson refers to Fredrick Taylor’s ‘bottom-up’ view to address this issue. Discussing managements recommendations in terms of fashions imply; â€Å"dissatisfaction ith the existing recommendations, and ambition to improve these recommendations, a sentiment that efforts at improvement, at least some of them fail, and some management recommendations should not be seen to belong to any management fashion. † (Brunsson, 2008 pp33) The journal promotes general management as a system of defining and classifying in order to improve organizational decision making. However empirical studies of managers shows an ‘mish-mash’ of those activities, implying Fayol’s theory of management has taken precedence of importance over the reality of management activities.This evidence ha s raised a new idea, that Fayol’s approach is no longer valid and â€Å"management order varies depending on the situation of a manager, and the position and personality of the manager† (Brunsson, 2008 pp42). If Fayol’s approach was scrutinized and his notion of general management was questioned, then Taylor’s scientific management concept may have prevailed and taken precedence. Both journals express the relevance and importance of Fayol’s classical approach to the development of Management study to date. However journal 1 implies that Fayol’s classical approach is more useful than other conceptualizing theories put forward.Journal 2 implies that the Fredrick Taylor’s scientific management principles are a more suitable and effective notion to define Management over the classical approach. In my opinion, Fayol’s classical approach holds the most credibility in studying management. I believe the depth to understanding manageria l concepts has no boundaries, due to the complexity of its study. As a result many theorists have attempted to understand this subject, and have criticized each other’s work, which proves there are no set guidelines to follow, it is rather subjective to its audience.However in my opinion Fayol’s four functions, cover the basis of activities involved to perform managerial duties. This statement is supported by the fact that it is a widely accepted approach and is used in all management textbooks. Fayol’s theory helps identify the functions clearly and distinctly. Managers are faced with decision making processes that have high impact on organizations. They are put into that role in the competitive industry, due to their understanding of managerial roles, so they can perform to their level best, and benefit the organization.Therefore as Fayol stated, it is important for managers to undergo training. Other theories put forward such as Mintzberg’s model, Kott er and Taylor’s scientific management approach, help us understand certain management functions in depth. I do not agree with some elements in Taylor’s scientific approach as to the difference in managerial work to Fayol’s theory which consists or a system of order. I believe that even in the ‘mish mash’ of overall managerial activities, there is a system of order and a logical process followed for each activity performed.However it is clear, that these theories are a product of evaluation on the initial Fayol’s classical theory. Therefore I believe Fayol’s classical approach still holds precedent, for purpose of managerial study and educational purposes. ? Reference list Brunsson, K. H, (2008), Some Effects of Fayolism, Int. Studies of Mgt. & Org. , 38, (1), 30-47 Carroll, S. J & Gillen, J. G, (1987), Are the Classical Management Functions useful in describing Managerial work? , Academy of Management review, 12, (1), 38-51

Thursday, August 29, 2019

The Case for Open Heart Surgery at Cabarrus Memorial Hospital Research Paper

The Case for Open Heart Surgery at Cabarrus Memorial Hospital - Research Paper Example Discuss ways the program does or does not comply with the hospital’s mission First, the availability of the open heart surgery program should be reviewed. In fact, it is available in 11 counties in North Carolina, however, it is not offered in the primary operational area, the CMH involves. Actually, this can be regarded as a key decisive factor for extending the range of procedures. Considering the hospital’s mission, it should be emphasized that the hospital has the sufficient base for heart surgery and therapy; therefore, the open heart program will lower the risks for the patients, who need angioplastry, and other invasive therapies. Considering the planned expansion of the hospital, the open heart surgery program is required for attracting experienced heart surgeons as well, while the lack of experts may be regarded as a stop factor. Considering the necessity to review the mission, the CMH will have to consider several additional aspects for launching the program. Therefore, the program will need some amendments, such as including output measurements, integrating the emergency practices into the new program, as well as differentiate responsibilities of the entire team. (Courtney, 2008) These amendments require the in-depth restructuring of the strategic approaches applied, as well as improving the implementation control schemes. Therefore, the mission of the hospital will have to be oriented at several aspects: 1. Patients’ satisfaction 2. Qualification improvement of the personnel (including training courses and experience exchanges) 3. Resolving legislative issues (medical insurance, new program formalities, etc.) Analyze whether or not CMH has sufficient infrastructure and financial resources / leverage necessary to add the program As it is stated in the case study description, the hospital has sufficie nt financial resources for rearranging the space, purchasing equipment, and employing additional personnel. (Swayne, Duncan and Ginter, 2008) Nevertheless, there is a lack of experienced personal expected. Therefore, as it is emphasized in the discussion, the hospital has only one invasive cardiologist, while the other experts are either interns, or non-invasive cardiologists. Therefore, the hospital will have to resolve the problem of finding the experienced personnel, for launching the open heart surgery program. Nevertheless, this could be regarded as the only serious threat for implementing it. On the other hand, the CMH will have to redesign the overall control management in order to launch the open heart surgery program. In accordance with the research by Scharer (2005), such a redesign may be performed by considering the engineering approach to measure and calculate the possible workload. These measures are required for adapting the HR strategy to the new working approaches, associated with launching the new program. However, such a shift will also require applying organizational development approach concentrated on the proper team building principles, since proper recruiting, and necessity for coordinated team work is essential for health care strategic management. Describe the competitive situation among other area hospitals that could impact the decision On the one hand, the CMH has an opportunity to become the first clinic in the county, offering the open heart surgery program. On the other hand, in accordance with the case description, the lack of the experienced personnel is essential, and some experts have been already gained by other clinics of the State. (Swayne, Duncan

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Analysis Of Speech Event Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Analysis Of Speech Event - Essay Example He also expressed his great respect for President Bush, and that â€Å"he had performed magnificently during the crisis†, which had followed the September 11th attacks on the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York, â€Å"and he had shown real qualities of leadership which had been required at that time†. The purpose of the interview was to obtain information on crucial world matters from a world leader. In this interview with only one main interviewee, the criterion of role, status and norm as applied to Tony Blair was one of power, and the questions were also formulated according to the needs of the situation. Since Mr. Blair had on earlier occassions been interviewed by Larry King, (as seen in the welcome given to him by King: â€Å" A return visit for the Prime Minister of Great Britain, Tony Blair†) he had a good rapport with him. He paid less attention to role, status and norm, and hence his responses approached proximity language. He spoke about talking with U.S. President George Bush several times a week, as it was necessary to â€Å"keep closely in contact with key allies and partners, so that we are working things through together, because one of the almost unique features of this crisis is how many different facets it’s got†.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Annotated Bibliography and Source Evaluations Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

And Source Evaluations - Annotated Bibliography Example The article is composed in a manner that represents behavior towards animal drug testing in developed world whereas it is silent on the topic of attitudes about the target practice in developing parts of the globe. The web-post made by Anthis, N on 10, October, 2006 stated that recent research on the topic of animal testing in medical field found that England based medical professionals are in favor of the practice as they recognize its importance in terms of making significant past developments possible. The notable number of participants of the study supported the practice while 96% of them considered the notion ethical and 65% of the respondents held the idea of safety dear. But they supported animal testing at the end. However 93% of the general practitioners who are interviewed offered a cautionary note which said that results of animal testing may mislead practitioners when working with humans. Yet in majority of the cases humans and animals have been known to experience similar symptoms when catch a same disease such as fever and therefore animal testing is recommended. The research paper written by Zurlo, Rudacille and Goldberg stated that laws governing animal rights have been passed in deverloped economies of the world such as England, Germany and Netherlands. The practitioners have been therefore suggested to keep their practices in line with the current legal system because failure to do so may result in imprisonment and cancellation of licensing as well. The developed nations are looking to develop alternative techniques for drug testing but the research in this field is currently at preliminary stages. However it promises a lot and have the tendency to change the present outlook of medical practice in the near future. The target audience of this document are professionals who are working to develop new testing techniques while the purpose of the

Monday, August 26, 2019

Comparison between US and UK Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Comparison between US and UK - Essay Example Similarities lie in the way decisions are made economically, in the United States of America, decisions related to economic policies are made by the central bank, by the Federal Reserve Committee, headed by the Federal Reserve chairman. These decisions heavily rely on macro-level economic data, factors such as real estate trends, rates of inflation, patterns of economic growth and home values are indicators that are commonly used. The federal funds' rate is set by the central bank, consequently influencing the rates for consumer and business accounts for savings and loan. Monetary policies are majorly concerned with balancing healthy growth and reduced inflation, or increased prices. This is one of the ways the government tries to control the economy. The fast growth rate of inflation is as a consequence of increased money supply, and when inflation is down this means money supply is down. Generally, the US inflation target is set to maintain the steadiness of the inflation, which sh ould be between 2-3% (GÃ ¤rtner 46). The UK monetary policy is set in almost a similar fashion. It is set by the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) of the bank of England. Though they are independent in setting the interest rates that will consequently influence the interest rates for savings and loans for individuals and businesses, they must put to consideration governments inflation target. The policy is key in influencing the spending of consumer and Aggregate Demand (AD).

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Restaurant Industry Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Restaurant Industry - Research Paper Example gross domestic product. The overall economic impact of the restaurant industry is expected to exceed $1.5 trillion in 2008, including sales in related industries such as agriculture, transportation and manufacturing. In addition to being highly competitive, the restaurant industry is often affected by changes in consumer tastes and discretionary spending patterns; changes in general economic conditions; public safety conditions; demographic trends; weather conditions; the cost and availability of raw materials, labor and energy; purchasing power; and government regulations. The restaurant industry faced several economic challenges in 2007, including rising food and labor costs and escalating gasoline prices that caused the revenue growth to remain sluggish. The cost of food and beverages account for approximately 33 cents of every dollar of restaurant sales and is one of the most critical items on their income statements (along with labor costs, which also represent about one-third of restaurant sales). Rising corn prices are a matter of concern as it serves as a primary ingredient in most food items and its steady increase sets off a rippling effect that tends to affect all food prices. The rising gas prices remain the biggest concern for the industry which threatens to strike the budget conscious consumers and their dining preferences. The dining-out i The dining-out industry has also fallen prey to the flood of merger and acquisition activities that creates an instability within the industry. The industry is forecast to under perform the broader market over the next several months and hence potential investors are hesitant and may focus on other sectors. However, long term prospects are excellent with increasing exposure to international markets and the mounting popularity of dining out. The Cheesecake Factory The Cheesecake Factory was the realization of a dream for Oscar and Evelyn Overton who started their business with baking and selling cheesecakes in Los Angeles. The company began operations in 1972 as a baker and distributor of cheesecakes and other bakery products. They opened the first restaurant in 1978 in Beverly Hills, California and thus started the growth of a global chain of restaurants. Currently the company operates 139 dining restaurants under The Cheesecake Factory mark in 34 states and the District of Columbia and 13 under the Grand Lux Caf mark in nine states. The Cheesecake Factory is an upscale dining restaurant that offers over 200 menu items including pizza, seafood, steaks, burgers, salads, sandwiches and desserts, and over 40 varieties of cheesecake and other baked desserts. The restaurant concept strives to provide a distinctive, high quality dining experience at moderate prices by offering an extensive, creative and evolving menu in an upscale, high-energy casu al setting with efficient, attentive and friendly service. Some of their popular cheesecakes include the Original Cheesecake, Godiva Chocolate, Key Lime Cheesecake, Carmel Pecan Turtle, White Chocolate Caramel Macademia Nut and Fresh Strawberry. Corporate Growth Strategies The business strategy is focused on a prudent allocation of capital intended to enhance overall earnings per share growth and increase returns on invested capital. Operationally, the company strives to improve productivity and efficiency through the use of technology and a

Saturday, August 24, 2019

The Role of Financial and Accounting Management Essay

The Role of Financial and Accounting Management - Essay Example The income statements are prepared to measure the net income of the organization during a specific period. It compares the revenues and expenses related to the specified period for the purpose of measuring the performance of the firm in terms of profitability, costs incurred and revenues generated. Using this statement, the managers are enabled to compare the previous periods’ results with that of the current period and measure the performance of the firm on the basis of the differences that occurred. For instance, an increase in expenses may help the managers analyze the situations that resulted in excess expenditure. The possible reasons may include increased losses due to poor working conditions, poor employee performance, change of material, increase in production and sales or so on. Hence, the statement of comprehensive income helps in measuring the performance of the business with its own past performance and provides help to the managers with the identification of risk elements that are affecting the performance of the firm. Ratio analysis is another important measure that helps in the measurement of the performance within the organization by comparing the current period’s results with the past results. The statement of changes in equity also helps in the measurement of the changes that occurred in the owner’s equity and the trends that are seen in the contributed capital and retained earnings of the firm. An increase or decrease in the equity shows the performance of the firm over a period of time.

Friday, August 23, 2019

Masters Personal Statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Masters - Personal Statement Example dation soon after my academic feat has also furthered my insight into the field of law, giving me an opportunity to put in practice theoretical concepts learnt at the university and during diverse training seminars. The undergraduate studies and training have fuelled my interest in law to higher levels, prompting me to consider pursuing a postgraduate degree in International Commercial Law. I have acquired significant skills relevant to the practice of law in the course of my academic training, internship and life in general. Skills like client orientation, problem resolution, organization and planning, business competence, adaptability and focus on quality, will come in handy in my professional development, which I hope your esteemed institution will accord me. I am diligent, focused and motivated to succeed as an international business relations lawyer. I intend to exert diligence in my postgraduate studies, while bringing my leadership skills and critical reasoning ability to presenting legally viable arguments to this globally renowned course.   I look forward to learning from honored professors the intricate nature of International Commercial Law. I am also eager to interact with like-minded scholars and advance my skills and knowledge to become effectively global-oriented. In a progressively competitive and interconnected world, I hope to acquire focused legal training that will help me in critical analysis and development of laws that govern international commerce. I appreciate the fact that becoming an international lawyer requires time and significant effort. I am willing and ready to make this commitment and approach the course with due diligence not just for enhancement of my career prospects, but also for the benefit of my future

Influence of the Media in American Politics Essay

Influence of the Media in American Politics - Essay Example These include newspapers, magazines, newsletters, advertising, websites; radio and television broadcasting. A survey of news channels and programs that feature political discussions; of the coverage of politics by American newspapers and internet sites; of radio shows reveals the wealth of information in circulation about American politics. The question is to what extent are people exposed to this information; to what extent do they absorb it. In 1987 Americans spent $6 billion for their weekday papers and nearly $1.4 billion on Sunday newspapers2. In 2001, there were approximately 248 million television sets in the United States and 1,669 hours, the equivalent of 70 days, was the projected time that adults in the United States would watch television in 20043. There is both a wealth of information about American politics and a high degree of public exposure to it. On the other hand, this does not determine that the media coverage or the public's perception of it is in any way slanted to the promotion of a particular political view. One of the most interesting means of measuring the degree to which media is reflective of the public opinion on American politics is to compare and analyse news coverage alongside reviews of public opinion. Several key issues warrant consideration. The war in Iraq and the present state of the US economy are two decidedly "hot topics" in the news today. Other interesting comparisons can be drawn with issues such as the war in Vietnam during the 1960s and 1970s, and perhaps the US policy against Communism until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989. The most accessible political issues for analysis in this context are the war in Iraq and the US economy as a means of monitoring the political spectrum relating to the approval of the presidency of George W. Bush at this time. One of the most controversial times in recent history for the mass media was the 2001 election; this event also warrants analysis as a means of demonstrating the kind of influence that the media appears to have upon US politics. An important view is expressed by Entman regarding the workings of the mass media and its relationship to politics within the United States. Entman describes the political and the economic as the two "real" marketplaces within the United States. He also states that "in ideal vision", the competition between these two marketplaces is considered to driver journalistic excellence. The reality, he concludes, is very different from the idea4. Entman states that, in practice, the competition between the economic and the political markets in the United States "prevent journalists from supplying the kind of news that would allow the average American to practice sophisticated citizenship"5. The ultimate conclusion offered is that the America public know and care very little about the government and so do not seek or understand "high-quality political reporting and analysis", holding either the government or journalists accountable in any respect6. Certainly Entman's opinion requires the support of evidence; there is ample supply.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Marketing Management of Ocean Park Essay Example for Free

Marketing Management of Ocean Park Essay Brief Description of Ocean Park Hong Kong Ocean Park Hong Kong is one of the most popular theme parks in the world. It was officially opened on January 10th 1977 by the governor of Hong Kong and was funded by the Hong Kong Jockey Club on July 1st 1987, with a Government-appointed Board. It constitutes of marine mammal, oceanarium, animal and amusement as a theme park, located in Wong Chuk Hang and Nam Long Shan in the Southern District of Hong Kong. Reason for Choosing Ocean Park Hong Kong Ocean Park Hong Kong ruled the local amusement park landscape alone. In 2005, Hong Kong Disneyland had arrived and busted out the Park from its near 30-year comfort zone. However, Ocean Park has secured the prestigious 2012 Applause Award, which was the first in Asia to be rewarded. The reason for choosing Ocean Park Hong Kong is thus to study how effectively the marketing strategies are used in the Park against its main competitor, Hong Kong Disneyland. SWOT Analysis A Strength of Ocean Park Hong Kong is the numerous attractions with different levels of amusements ranging from roller coasters to aquariums. Another one is the five major annual events throughout the year: a varying Animal in High Definition Month, the Ocean Park Summer Splash, the Halloween Bash, Christmas and Chinese New Year celebrations. Yet, the most obvious weakness is the several incidents happened in the past five years. Panda attacking a feeder, dying of Chinese sturgeons and sudden pause of attractions – all these had surprised the public’s confidence to the park. In terms of opportunity, there is a proposed MTR station on the east of South Island Line for Ocean. Park Hong Kong. The station would help attract more customers for the Park because it will be easier and more convenient to visit. The major threat is from the future development plan of Hong Kong Disneyland, which is expected to build more themed areas, rides and hotels in the coming decade to match the increasing needs. There will be keen competition between Ocean Park Hong Kong and Disneyland after such an expansion. Marketing Objectives Since Ocean Park Hong Kong aims to become a leader among the theme park industry, its marketing objective is to strive for a place in the top ten of the total number of visitors of the Global Attractions Attendance report by AECOM within two years. Moreover, the Park hopes to increase its profit by at least 20% within two years due to the huge amount of visitors every year. Last, due to the accidents happened in recent years, customers’ satisfaction towards Ocean Park Hong Kong has been damaged. To increase customer retention and satisfaction, the Park should make an effort to ensure there will be no accident in the coming two years Reference list 1 / 2 Rubin, J. (2013). Global attendence attractions report. Retrieved from http://www. aecom. com/deploy edfiles/Internet/Capabilities/Economics/_documents/ThemeMuseumIndex_2013. pdf (2014). Vision and Mission. Retrieved from http://www. oceanpark. com. hk/html/en/footer/corporate-information/vision. html (2014). Annual Report. Retrieved from http://www. oceanpark. com. hk/doc/common/footer/ar/ophk_ar12-13. pdf Ocean Park, Hong Kong. (n.d. ). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 7, 2014 from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ocean_Park_Hong_Kong Pelle, J. (2012). Liseberg The Applause Award. Retrieved October 5, 2014 from http://liseberg. com/en/home/Entertainment/Awards1/ Nip, A. (2014). Annual tourists to Hong Kong could rise to 70 million in three years, commission says,SCMP,17 January from http://www. scmp. com/news/hong-kong/article/1407779/visitor- numbers-can-rise-70m-three-years-commission-says? page=all POWERED BY TCPDF (WWW. TCPDF. ORG).

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

What is churn? An overview

What is churn? An overview Churn is the phenomenon where a customer switches from one service to a competitors service (Tsai Chen, 2009:2). There are two main types of churn, namely voluntary churn and involuntary churn. Voluntary churn is when the customer initiated the service termination. Involuntary churn means the company suspended the customers service and this is usually because of non-payment or service abuse. Companies, in various industries, have recently started to realise that their client set is their most valuable asset. Retaining the existing clients is the best marketing strategy. Numerous studies have confirmed this by showing that it is more profitable to keep your existing clients satisfied than to constantly attract new clients (Van Den Poel Larivià ¨re, 2004:197; Coussement Van Den Poel, 2008:313). According to Van Den Poel and Larivià ¨re (2004:197) successful customer retention has more than just financial benefits: Successful customer retention programs free the organisation to focus on existing customers needs and the building of relationships. It lowers the need to find new customers with uncertain levels of risk. Long term customers tend to buy more and provide positive advertising through word-of-mouth. The company has better knowledge of long term customers and they are less expensive with lower uncertainty and risk. Customers with longer tenures are less likely to be influenced by competitive marketing strategies. Sales may decrease if customers churn, due to lost opportunities. These customers also need to be replaced, which can cost five to six times more than simply retaining the customer. 1.1.Growth in Fixed-line Markets According to Agrawal (2009) the high growth phase in the telecommunications market is over. In the future, wealth in the industry will be split between the companies. Revenues (of telecommunication companies) are declining around the world. Figure 2 shows Telkoms fixed-line customer base and customer growth rate for the previous seven years. The number of lines is used as an estimate for the number of fixed-line customers. Figure 2-Telkoms fixed-line annual customer base (Idea adopted from Ahn, Han Lee (2006:554)) With the lower customer growth worldwide, it is becoming vital to prevent customers from churning. 1.2.Preventing Customer Churn The two basic approaches to churn management are divided into untargeted and targeted approaches. Untargeted approaches rely on superior products and mass advertising to decrease churn (Neslin, Gupta, Kamakura, Lu Mason, 2004:3). Targeted approaches rely on identifying customers who are likely to churn and then customising a service plan or incentive to prevent it from happening. Targeted approaches can be further divided into proactive and reactive approaches. With a proactive approach the company identifies customers who are likely to churn at a future date. These customers are then targeted with incentives or special programs to attempt to retain them. In a reactive targeted approach the company waits until the customer cancels the account and then offers the customer an incentive (Neslin et al., 2004:4). A proactive targeted approach has the advantage of lower incentive costs (because the customer is not â€Å"bribed† at the last minute to stay with the company). It also prevents a culture where customers threaten to churn in order to negotiate a better deal with the company (Neslin et al., 2004:4). The proactive, targeted approach is dependent on a predictive statistical technique to predict churners with a high accuracy. Otherwise the companys funds may be wasted on unnecessary programs that incorrectly identified customers. 1.3.Main Churn Predictors According to Chu, Tsai and Ho (2007:704) the main contributors to churn in the telecommunications industry are; price, coverage, quality and customer service. Their contributions to churn can be seen from Figure 3. Figure 3 indicates that the primary reason for churn is price related (47% of the sample). The customer churns because a cheaper service or product is available, through no fault of the company. This means that a perfect retention strategy, based on customer satisfaction, can only prevent 53% of the churners (Chu et al., 2007:704). 1.4.Churn Management Framework Datta, Masand, Mani and Li (2001:486) proposed a five stage framework for customer churn management (Figure 4). The first stage is to identify suitable data for the modelling process. The quality of this data is extremely important. Poor data quality can cause large losses in money, time and opportunities (Olson, 2003:1). It is also important to determine if all the available historical data, or only the most recent data, is going to be used. The second stage consists of the data semantics problem. It has a direct link with the first stage. In order to complete the first stage successfully, a complete understanding of the data and the variables information are required. Data quality issues are linked to data semantics because it often influences data interpretation directly. It frequently leads to data misinterpretation (Dasu Johnson, 2003:100). Stage three handles feature selection. Cios, Pedrycz, Swiniarski and Kurgan (2007:207) define feature selection as â€Å"a process of finding a subset of features, from the original set of features forming patterns in a given data set†. It is important to select a sufficient number of diverse features for the modelling phase. Section 5.5.3 discusses some of the most important features found in the literature. Stage four is the predictive model development stage. There are many alternative methods available. Figure 5 shows the number of times a statistical technique was mentioned in the papers the author read. These methods are discussed in detail in Section 6. The final stage is the model validation process. The goal of this stage is to ensure that the model delivers accurate predictions. 5.5.1Stage one Identify data Usually a churn indicator flag must be derived in order to define churners. Currently, there exists no standard accepted definition for churn (Attaa, 2009). One of the popular definitions state that a customer is considered churned if the customer had no active products for three consecutive months (Attaa, 2009; Virgin Media, 2009; Orascom Telecom, 2008). Once a target variable is derived, the set of best features (variables) can be determined. 5.5.2Stage two Data semantics Data semantics is the process of understanding the context of the data. Certain variables are difficult to interpret and must be carefully studied. It is also important to use consistent data definitions in the database. Datta, et al. (2001) claims that this phase is extremely important. 5.5.3Stage three Feature selection Feature selection is another important stage. The variables selected here are used in the modelling stage. It consists of two phases. Firstly, an initial feature subset is determined. Secondly, the subset is evaluated based on a certain criterion. Ahn et al. (2006:554) describe four main types of determinants in churn. These determinants should be included in the initial feature subset. Customer dissatisfaction is the first determinant of churn mentioned. It is driven by network and call quality. Service failures have also been identified as â€Å"triggers† that accelerate churn. Customers who are unhappy can have an extended negative influence on a company. They can spread negative word-of-month and also appeal to third-party consumer affair bodies (Ahn et al., 2006:555). Cost of switching is the second main determinant. Customers maintain their relationships with a company based on one of two reasons: they â€Å"have to† stay (constraint) or they â€Å"want to† stay (loyalty). Companies can use loyalty programs or membership cards to encourage their customers to â€Å"want to† stay (Ahn et al., 2006:556). Service usage is the third main determinant. A customers service usage can broadly be described with minutes of use, frequency of use and total number of distinct numbers used. Service usage is one of the most popular predictors in churn models. It is still unclear if the correlation between churn and service usage is positive or negative (Ahn et al., 2006:556). The final main determinant is customer status. According to Ahn et al. (2006:556), customers seldom churn suddenly from a service provider. Customers are usually suspended for a while due to payment issues, or they decide not to use the service for a while, before they churn. Wei and Chiu (2002:105) use length of service and payment method as further possible predictors of churn. Customers with a longer service history are less likely to churn. Customers who authorise direct payment from their bank accounts are also expected to be less likely to churn. Qi, Zhang, Shu, Li and Ge (2004?:2) derived different growth rates and number of abnormal fluctuation variables to model churn. Customers with growing usage are less likely to churn and customers with a high abnormal fluctuation are more likely to churn. 5.5.4Stage four Model development It is clear from Figure 5 that decision tree models are the most frequently used models. The second most popular technique is logistic regression, followed closely by neural networks and survival analysis. The technique that featured in the least number of papers is discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis is a multivariate technique that classifies observations into existing categories. A mathematical function is derived from a set of continuous variables that best discriminates among the set of categories (Meilgaard, Civille Carr, 1999:323). According to Cohen and Cohen (2002:485) discriminant analysis makes stronger modelling assumptions than logistic regression. These include that the predictor variables must be multivariate normally distributed and the within-group covariance matrix must be homogeneous. These assumptions are rarely met in practice. According to Harrell (2001:217) even if these assumptions are met, the results obtained from logistic regression are still as accurate as those obtained from discrimination analysis. Discriminant analysis will, therefore, not be considered. A neural network is a parallel data processing structure that possesses the ability to learn. The concept is roughly based on the human brain (Hadden, Tiwari, Roy Ruta, 2006:2). Most neural networks are based on the perceptron architecture where a weighted linear combination of inputs is sent through a nonlinear function. According to de Waal and du Toit (2006:1) neural networks have been known to offer accurate predictions with difficult interpretations. Understanding the drivers of churn is one of the main goals of churn modelling and, unfortunately, traditional neural networks provide limited understanding of the model. Yang and Chiu (2007:319) confirm this by stating that neural networks use an internal weight scheme that doesnt provide any insight into why the solution is valid. It is often called a black-box methodology and neural networks are, therefore, also not considered in this study. The statistical methodologies used in this study are decision trees, logistic regression and survival analysis. Decision tree modelling is discussed in Section 6.1, logistic regression in Sections 6.2 and 6.3 and survival analysis is discussed in Section 6.4. 5.5.5Stage five Validation of results Each modelling technique has its own, specific validation method. To compare the models, accuracy will be used. However, a high accuracy on the training and validation data sets does not automatically result in accurate predictions on the population dataset. It is important to take the impact of oversampling into account. Section 5.6 discusses oversampling and the adjustments that need to be made. 1.5.Adjustments for Target Level Imbalances From Telkoms data it is clear that churn is a rare event of great interest and great value (Gupta, Hanssens, Hardie, Kahn, Kumar, Lin Sriram, 2006:152). If the event is rare, using a sample with the same proportion of events and non-events as the population is not ideal. Assume a decision tree is developed from such a sample and the event rate (x%) is very low. A prediction model could obtain a high accuracy (1-x%) by simply assigning all the cases to the majority level (e.g. predict all customers are non-churners) (Wei Chiu, 2002:106). A sample with more balanced levels of the target is required. Basic sampling methods to decrease the level of class imbalances include under-sampling and over-sampling. Under-sampling eliminates some of the majority-class cases by randomly selecting a lower percentage of them for the sample. Over-sampling duplicates minority-class cases by including a randomly selected case more than once (Burez Van Den Poel, 2009:4630). Under-sampling has the drawback that potentially useful information is unused. Over-sampling has the drawback that it might lead to over-fitting because cases are duplicated. Studies have shown that over-sampling is ineffective at improving the recognition of the minority class (Drummond Holte, 2003:8). According to Chen, Liaw Breiman, (2004:2) under-sampling has an edge over over-sampling. However, if the probability of an event (target variable equals one) in the population differs from the probability of an event in the sample, it is necessary to make adjustments for the prior probabilities. Otherwise the probability of the event will be overestimated. This will lead to score graphs and statistics that are inaccurate or misleading (Georges, 2007:456). Therefore, decision-based statistics based on accuracy (or misclassification) misrepresent the model performance on the population. A model developed on this sample will identify more churners than there actually are (high false alarm rate). Without an adjustment for prior probabilities, the estimates for the event will be overestimated. According to Potts (2001:72) the accuracy can be adjusted with equation 1. It takes prior probabilities into account. With: : the population proportion of non-churners : the population proportion of churners : the sample proportion of non-churners : the sample proportion of churners : the number of true negatives (number of correctly predicted non- churners) : the number of true positives (number of correctly predicted churners) : the number of instances in the sample However, accuracy as a model efficiency measure trained on an under-sampled dataset is dependent on the threshold. This threshold is influenced by the class imbalance between the sample and the population (Burez Van Den Poel, 2009:4626).

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

World Hunger And Poverty In Developing Countries Politics Essay

World Hunger And Poverty In Developing Countries Politics Essay Growing up, the commercials of starving children in Africa in need of food because of rampant starvation and the pervasive threat of death have been streaming on various media. World Hunger is one of the main problems that a large portion of the global population faces today. Hunger varies with severity but in this case it is the want of food in a third world country. World hunger is a problem that has existed for much of our known history; it has faded away from central concerns because it is barely brought up in everyday conversations. World hunger has many aggravating factors and principal causes, such as insufficient economic systems, misinformation, climate changes, etc. But the main debilitating factor is poverty as poverty always has led to people going without regular meals because they cannot afford to eat. There are vast quantities of people in third world nations and developing countries such as Kenya, Uganda, and Ethiopia that are so impoverished that are in desperate nee d for food. Whether a country is rich or poor, there are always tremendous numbers of people dealing with poverty and hunger. Perhaps most disheartening is the cruel reality that most of the victims are young children. Hunger is a very serious issue that cannot easily be remedied. As a matter of fact, people all over the world mainly concentrated in developing countries die because of hunger and starvation on a daily basis. With the growth of population, the number of hungry people also increases at a disproportionate rate. Unfortunate people go days, even weeks, with no food because of their despairing conditions. A persons body can only survive for so long without proper nutrition. Amazingly, the body can go up to about two to three months without food. Our bodies feed off our muscles and then fat in order to live but after that, there is little to maintain a person. It is at that point that an individuals body shuts down. Without treatment or food, this leads to death. Hunger has persistently remained a serious problem in many developing countries including countries like Kenya, Uganda, and Ethiopia. This is reminiscent of commercials that are shown on TV about children starving that tug on our heartstrings and make us empathize with those less fortunate th an us. Sometimes, it coerces us to donate money to help. After this initial flight of empathy, people soon forget about it. Even though the United States is known for being a rich country, known as the land of plenty, even here we have poverty and starvation. Needless to say, it is not right to sit and watch developing countries suffer. Should the government choose to implement solutions in order to combat world hunger, the number of children and destitute adults starving in undeveloped countries may dwindle significantly. To combat world hunger, we must first consider poverty, the primary cause of these conditions. People in countries are not hungry because there is not enough to go around. Rather, the food available is too costly for the average poor person. But that is not to say that the better off sympathize with the impoverished. In fact, these people tend to believe that the poor are unemployed because they are too lazy or stupid to find jobs, and instead wait for others to simply give them amenities (Hughes, 2006). While this may be true for some, it is not representative of the majority of poverty. It is highly unlikely that poor people simply chose to live their lifestyles with little to go around. In most cases misfortune is thrust upon these people. A prime example of this would be the aftermath of the earthquake that hit Haiti some years ago. Thousands found themselves without homes, without resources and without infrastructure on which to build any wealth. As one can see, this unpredictab le force of nature caused great misfortune without distinction among class, wealth or social status. Consequently, it is asinine for people better off to simply dismiss poverty as a result of laziness or stupidity. Among the impoverished, there is certainly drive and ambition to improve their conditions yet society may not have a place for them. According to the article Feeding the World in the New Millennium, close to 2 billion people in developing countries scrape by on only a dollar or two a day (Pinstrup-Anderson, 2001). It is hard to imagine that this measly amount could suffice for a single meal. While poverty acts as a debilitating factor to the individual, undeveloped and developing countries are stifled in their economic systems as well. Many developing countries lack sufficient trade to promote wealth on any large scale, thus contributing to the hunger problem. Low-income food-deficit countries are those that do not have enough food to feed their populations and for the most part lack the financial resources to pay for imports. FAO defines low-income countries as those with a per capita gross national product (GNP) (in 1993) of US$1,345 or less and a net deficit in grain trade averaged over the preceding five marketing year (Hunger in the Midst of Plenty, 1997, para. 6). Some governments are extremely restricted in the resources they can allot to their citizens while maintaining the bare minimum required to run the country. This scarcity of resources is a major player and the sad truth remains that this contributes to the plague that is hunger. Christensen (1978) shows th at, chronic hunger is caused in poverty which happens when incomes are distributed unequally in countries (p.745) this means that while some are well off even in an undeveloped country, there are multitudes more that go without food. Next, climate change also adds to world hunger. One may wonder how climate changes affect or lead to world hunger. With the amount of rain that a country gets increases, it can potentially lead to serious flooding. This can ruin an entire years harvest, destroying whatever the farmer may have prepared for his family or the market. Flooding detrimentally affects how much food is produced and available to the impoverished and raises the costs of these farm products. This means that the poor can afford even less than they would usually be able to buy. Many people in developing countries depend on farmers in order to survive, so with the weather changing so drastically with each season, it ruins their chances of growing food to either eat or sell. (Climate changes is worsening world hunger, 2013). It makes it hard for them to produce food because of how changes in weather are increasing drastically. Farmers already struggle with growing food, so with the climate changes increasing it is not only affecting them but also affecting their nations economy. The report, released before the G8 meeting in Italy this week, where Barack Obama will chair a session on climate change, warns that without immediate action on climate all the development gains made in 50 years are under threat (Vidal, 2009, Para. 5). This shows that if nothing is done, much of the undeveloped and developing countries will be at risk. Finally another major influence that plays a role in hunger is malnutrition and health. Malnutrition occurs when a persons body receives little or no nutrients. People who are malnourished  get sick more often and as a result in many cases die. According to Muller Krawinkel (2005), Malnutrition is consequently the most important risk factor for the burden of disease in developing countries.  It is the direct cause of about 300,000 deaths per year and is indirectly responsible for about half of all deaths in young children (p. 279) When the individual does not eat a proper meal that provides nutrients and vitamins, it contributes to malnutrition. It not only harms the body but also the mind. Malnutrition also causes an illness called Kwashiorkor in many developing countries, mainly in children. Such a disease occurs when there is not enough protein in a childs diet. According to the Canadian medical association journal, Kwashiorkor usually manifests with edema, changes to hair and skin color, anemia, hepatomegaly, lethargy, severe immune deficiency and early death (Muller Krawinkel, 2005, p.280). When a child is petite with a huge stomach, thats when you know that the child has kwashiorkor. Poor people in developing countries are the ones that are largely affected by this pandemic. They cannot find food to eat and even when they do, they tend to eat whatever, which they are not supposed to eat because it is harmful. The world produces enough food to feed families, but yet people are still starving hunger. Malnutrition is leading cause of a serious number of deaths in developing countries. Actions must be taken because poor nutrition makes an individual prone to disease and often too weak to face their bleak reality. Furthermore, steps should be taken in ending world hunger. This issue has been a dominating problem in developing countries that has distracted these nations from reaching progress in other fields. Already, steps are not enough to alleviate the epidemic that is world hunger. The Pinstrup-Anderson (2001) stated that, one of every five people in the developing world is hungry (P. 24). Every individual at one point has complained about starvation because they have not eaten in perhaps a few hours. These same people have not truly experienced extreme hunger where the person does not have enough nutrients in their body and goes through serious pain. People in developed countries should make an effort to help the poor in developing countries that are in need of serious help. In order to solve this, the reigning governments should offer programs that create better paying jobs that will help low income people have the opportunity to provide food on the table for their families. People in dev eloped countries are notoriously known for wasting huge amounts of food every single day. It is very shocking to see this; citizens tend to get more than they can eat and end up wasting it. In Africa, farmers and citizens of the country lose food because they do not have the proper knowledge growing and managing their crops. They do not go about wasting crop matter because they know it is hard to get some. Food being wasted could feed millions of young children starving in Africa. People in developed countries like Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom waste food too much and it has to stop. In conclusion, world hunger is a problem that should be taken seriously and should be approached with all deliberate and swift policies. There are so many different causes of world hunger but the three main ones are poverty, climate changes, and also weak economies. Families in developing countries are in serious need of help. Developed countries like the United States and Canada should find multifaceted policies to help populations in third world nations. By connecting the farmers in the country to consumers, it could help them be able to provide for their families and also other families that are in need. If finding other solutions to help world hunger is delayed, many people will keep losing their loved ones. People in developing countries cannot solve this by themselves; they need helping hands. Developed countries need to start thinking less of themselves and more of poor people in countries that are struggling. People need to contribute financially to organizations that have be en created to help end hunger. It is a sad reality that a simple meal is what is on the minds of millions around the world, and yet many do not achieve this seemingly simple goal. Yet, it is not just world hunger that is the problem; poverty too feeds this vicious cycle. World hunger is a daily tragedy, one that is capable of remedy through compassion and perseverance.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Sony Corporation :: essays research papers

Sony Corporation-Company Information Sony was founded in Tokyo in 1946 by engineer Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita, a physicist. They started the company with 20 employees repairing electrical equipment and attempting to build their own products. The company’s success started in 1946 when Sony launched Japan’s first transistor and the first â€Å"all-transistor† radio in 1955. In the more than 50 years since the company first began trading, it has grown from 20 employees to over 160,000 people around the world. The name Sony was chosen from the Latin word sonus, which is the root of sonic and sound, and the English word â€Å"sunny.† Sony Corporation of America was established in the United States. Today, Sony Corporation develops and manufactures consumer and industrial electronic equipment. The Company's products include audio and video equipment, televisions, displays, electronic components, computers and computer peripherals, and telecommunication equipment. The Company is also active in the worldwide music and image-based software markets. Since the 1980’s, Sony had transformed itself from an electronics company to a global entertainment company with such products. Some of this company’s major competitors include Matsushita, Philips, and Sanyo. The world’s first CD player was launched in October 1982. Sony conducts insurance operations through Sony Life, a Japanese life insurance subsidiary, and Sony Assurance Inc., a Japanese non-life insurance subsidiary. Sony is engaged in a leasing and credit financing business in Japan through Finance International Inc. It also conducts an internet-based banking business in Japan through Sony Bank Inc. which is an eighty percent directly owned subsidiary of Sony Financial holdings. Sony acquired Columbia records from CBS and it was named Sony Music Entertainment. Sony has been historically notable for pushing its own in-house standards for new recording and storage technologies, which are often different from those of other manufacturers or of market trends and standards. On July 20th, 2004, the European Union approves a 50-50 merger between Sony Music Entertainment and BMG. The new company will be called Sony BMG, and will control 60 percent of the world wide market.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Analysis of Keats To Autumn Essay -- Keats To Autumn Essays Poetry

Analysis of Keats' To Autumn  Ã‚   John Keats' poem To Autumn is essentially an ode to Autumn and the change of seasons. He was apparently inspired by observing nature; his detailed description of natural occurrences has a pleasant appeal to the readers' senses.   Keats also alludes to a certain unpleasantness connected to Autumn, and links it to a time of death.   However, Keats' association between stages of Autumn and the process of dying does not take away from the "ode" effect of the poem.      The three-stanza poem seems to create three distinct stages of Autumn:   growth,   harvest, and death.   The theme going in the first stanza is that Autumn is a season of fulfilling, yet the theme ending the final stanza is that Autumn is a season of dying.   However, by using the stages of Autumn's as a metaphor for the process of death, Keats puts the concept of death in a different, more favorable light.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the first stanza, the "growth" stanza, Keats appeals to our sense of visualization.   The reader pictures a country setting, such as a cottage with a yard full of fruit trees and flowers.   In his discussion of the effects of Autumn on nature, Keats brilliantly personifies Autumn.   A personification is when an object or a concept is presented in such a way as to give life or human characteristics to the idea or concept.   Not only does Keats speak of Autumn as if it had life, (e.g., in lines 2 and 3, where he creates a friendship between Autumn and the sun, in which they "conspire" to "load and bless" the trees with ripe, bountiful fruit), but he also gives personality to the life-form Autumn.   He first defines Autumn as a "season of mist and mellow fruitfulness."   The references to both "mist" and "mellow... as funerals, or recessionals.   It is appropriate that this change of imagery into musical imagery in the final stanza because it is not only the end of the poem, but it is the description of the end of Autumn as well ("While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day").   The use of the word "soft" in "soft-dying day" helps to take away the "Grim Reaper" sense of death and define it as a natural, inevitable occurrence that ends a cycle.      The final line "and gathering swallows twitter in the skies" gives the reader a definite sense of ending (the swallows are preparing to migrate for the winter season).   At this point, the poem seems to comes to a rest, and this final line creates an effective sense of closure. Bibliography: "To Autumn". The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Ed. M.H. Abrams. New York: W.W. norton, Inc., 2000.          Analysis of Keats' To Autumn Essay -- Keats To Autumn Essays Poetry Analysis of Keats' To Autumn  Ã‚   John Keats' poem To Autumn is essentially an ode to Autumn and the change of seasons. He was apparently inspired by observing nature; his detailed description of natural occurrences has a pleasant appeal to the readers' senses.   Keats also alludes to a certain unpleasantness connected to Autumn, and links it to a time of death.   However, Keats' association between stages of Autumn and the process of dying does not take away from the "ode" effect of the poem.      The three-stanza poem seems to create three distinct stages of Autumn:   growth,   harvest, and death.   The theme going in the first stanza is that Autumn is a season of fulfilling, yet the theme ending the final stanza is that Autumn is a season of dying.   However, by using the stages of Autumn's as a metaphor for the process of death, Keats puts the concept of death in a different, more favorable light.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the first stanza, the "growth" stanza, Keats appeals to our sense of visualization.   The reader pictures a country setting, such as a cottage with a yard full of fruit trees and flowers.   In his discussion of the effects of Autumn on nature, Keats brilliantly personifies Autumn.   A personification is when an object or a concept is presented in such a way as to give life or human characteristics to the idea or concept.   Not only does Keats speak of Autumn as if it had life, (e.g., in lines 2 and 3, where he creates a friendship between Autumn and the sun, in which they "conspire" to "load and bless" the trees with ripe, bountiful fruit), but he also gives personality to the life-form Autumn.   He first defines Autumn as a "season of mist and mellow fruitfulness."   The references to both "mist" and "mellow... as funerals, or recessionals.   It is appropriate that this change of imagery into musical imagery in the final stanza because it is not only the end of the poem, but it is the description of the end of Autumn as well ("While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day").   The use of the word "soft" in "soft-dying day" helps to take away the "Grim Reaper" sense of death and define it as a natural, inevitable occurrence that ends a cycle.      The final line "and gathering swallows twitter in the skies" gives the reader a definite sense of ending (the swallows are preparing to migrate for the winter season).   At this point, the poem seems to comes to a rest, and this final line creates an effective sense of closure. Bibliography: "To Autumn". The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Ed. M.H. Abrams. New York: W.W. norton, Inc., 2000.         

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Bruce Dawes poems Essay

Bruce Dawes poems explore the impacts of consumer culture and are an indictment of the growing materialism in modern society. In Enter Without So Much As Knocking (1962), Dawe portrays a world dominated by consumerism, which has lead to `conformity, and eroded the individuality of many people. The idea that our view of the world can only be seen through television and that our experience of life is restricted and controlled by it is highlighted in the satirical poem, Tele Vistas.(1977) This idea is revisited in The Not So Good Earth.(1966) Television in consumer society is the prime source of information and entertainment. Dawe expresses his concern that we have become desensitized to human suffering because it is presented to us as entertainment. The central message of the satirical poem Enter Without So Much As Knocking by Bruce Dawe is that â€Å"you are dust and unto dust you shall return†. Dawe’s biblical allusion emphasizes that it doesn’t matter how many consumer items and materialistic things are bought, everybody ends up the same way, back to dust again. Society is portrayed as the product of the consumer age and human life is determined as a by-product, lacking in real value and soon rendered obsolete. Dawe suggests that contemporary society is false and superficial. The intertextual reference to ‘Bobby Dazzler’ epitomizes this: an empty smile behind the welcoming faà §ade reinforced through the superficial clichà © â€Å"all you lucky people† undercut by Dawe’s mocking tone in â€Å"and he really was lucky because it didn’t mean a thing to him†. The family is defined in terms of what they look like in advertising jargon: the mother is ‘economy size’. Consumerism now defines identity or lack of individuality. This brings the idea that in order to belong to a consumer based society, the individual must conform. This idea is reinforced through negative listing in â€Å"he was old enough to be realistic like every other godless money-hungry back-stabbing miserable so-and-so†. The derogatory labeling is a clichà ©d reference to the gossiping and derisive comments that characterize the materialistic culture Dawe is criticizing in his poem. Tele vistas (1977) is another satirical poem where humans are identified on the terms of brand names of communication companies, â€Å" Sanyo-orientated, Rank-Arena bred†. This use of metaphor reinforces how identity is shaped by  consumer culture – their character/personalization is determined by their choice of technology. The modern god is television and its viewing content is being satirized heavily by Dawe. This poem thoroughly ridicules the dominance of television media in our lives. Reality is defined by media constructs – relationships and human conversation comes second. Through Dawe’s indictment of consumer culture, he raises the issue that modern society lacks identity, individuality and purpose and that contemporary Australians are typically co-dependent on television for basic human interaction, †a faulty tube led to their meeting†. The romantic cliche’s juxtaposed with references to television suggest that the relationship of the couple would not have occurred without TV. The demise of the relationship is foreshadowed through the juxtaposition of ‘ever-faithful’ with an alliterative metaphoric reference to ‘’World at War’ in the final lines of the poem. Dawe suggests that relationships built on shared consumerism are ultimately shallow and unstable. The Not So Good Earth, like Tele Vistas, is centered on the commonplace activity of watching television. Dawe expresses his concern that individuals have become desensitized to human suffering because it is presented as entertainment. Vivid imagery of human suffering is juxtaposed with the upbeat tone to describe the satisfaction achieved by a good quality picture. This is made evident through the phrase, â€Å"using the contrast knob to bring them up dark, all those screaming faces†. Life footage is depicted as a product like a movie to be judged on its value to the consumer through, â€Å"on the quieter parts where they’re just starving away†. It is a very satirical poem that creates black humor. Through the characters’ complete insensitivity and absence of either empathy or sympathy, Dawe expresses amazement at the complacency of people in our society. A metaphoric and satirical reference is made by the poet commenting on the destruction of less privileged communities â€Å"We never did find out how it finished up†¦ Dad at this stage tripped over the main lead in the dark, hauling the whole set down smack on its inscrutable face, 600 million Chinese without a trace†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . The light tone that focuses on the loss of the TV trivializes the loss of life referred to in these lines. By adopting the voice of a consumer Dawe parodies consumer culture and exposes the insensitivity that accompanies  shallow materialistic values. Enter Without So Much As Knocking (1962)outlines how consumer culture has eroded the individuality of people. This is also evident in Tele Vistas (1977) as Dawe portrays that life can only be seen through a television screen, not through common encounters. The Not So Good Earth (1966)is a very satirical poem that creates black humor through the idea that society has become desensitized to human suffering due to consumerism.

Heat of Solidification Lab-Writeup

Introduction In chemistry, substances require a certain amount of energy in the form of average kinetic energy (temperature) to freeze. To reach the temperature a substance requires to freeze, it must lose a certain amount of heat energy (a form of energy transferred from one object to another, because of a temperature difference). When a substance reaches its freezing point and begins to freeze, its temperature remains constant until it is completely frozen.However, in order to melt a substance must go through a energy change, creating the problem, â€Å"What energy changes occur when a liquid solidifies? †. To solve the problem, a hypothesis was proposed, stating â€Å"When a substance begins to solidify, it releases heat energy, because a substance must reach its heat of solidification (heat required to freeze) by losing a certain amount of heat, in order to solidify†. In order to test this hypothesis, a experiment was performed. Materials and MethodsIn the experimen t, the materials required were 1 wax sample in a test tube with the weight of the test tube labeled, a 250 mL beaker, a ringstand, a wire gauze, a graduated cylinder, a Bunsen Burner, a styrofoam calorimeter, and a thermometer. To perform the experiment, first the calorimeter was filled with 100 mL of water using a graduated cylinder, and the temperature of the water was found and recorded. Next, the beaker was filled 3/4 full with water and placed on the stand of the ringstand above a gently burning flame from the Bunsen Burner.Then, the mass of the test tube and wax was found and recorded, and the tube was placed in the beaker. After the wax in the tube melted, the tube was placed in the calorimeter, using a wire gauze. Lastly, once the wax in the tube solidified, the temperature of the water in the calorimeter was measured and recorded. Results Data Recorded During Experiment Mass wax and test tube41. 2 gramsTemperature water after heating26 ? C Mass empty test tube21. 0 gramsTem perature water before heating16 ? C Mass wax20. 2 gramsTemperature change10 ? CVolume water used100 mLMass of water used100 grams In the data table above, the mass of the wax was found by subtracting the mass of the empty test tube from the mass of the wax and test tube, giving an answer of 20. 2 g. To find the volume of water used, the mass of the water was multiplied by the density of the water, giving an answer of 100 g. To find the temperature change of the water, the temperature of the water after heating was subtracted by the temperature of the water before heating, giving an answer of 10 ? C. CalculationsAfter the experiment, the heat gained by the water from the wax in the calorimeter was calculated using the formula q = mC? T, where C equaled 4. 18 J/g * ? C. After the corresponding values were plugged in, the equation: 100g(4. 18 J/g * ? C. )(26? C-16? C) was created and solved for an answer of 4180 J of heat gained. After the amount of heat gained was found, the heat rele ased per gram of wax (heat of solidification) was calculated using the equation: 4180 J/20. 2g, giving an answer of 206. 93 J released per gram of wax.Although the heat released per gram of wax, found through the calculations, was 206. 93 J, the accepted value was 150. 0 J/g, because of this, the percent error was calculated using the formula:(measured – actualactual)100. After the values were plugged in, giving the equation:(206. 93 J/g – 150. 0 J/g150. 0 J/g)100, the percent error was found to be 38%. Discussion After the results were found, a conclusion was drawn up supporting the hypothesis. In the experiment, the temperature of the water increased from 16 ? C to 26 ? C after the wax solidified.This showed that the wax must have released heat energy, in order to cause the temperature of the water to change, due to temperature requiring heat to change. In a experiment, there are many different possible sources of scientific error. In the experiment that was preforme d, two possible sources of error were determined. The first source of error found was, the thermometer may have miss-measured the temperature of the water after the wax solidified, too high or low, which would have caused the heat of solidification to be too high or low.The other source of error was the wax may not have fully solidified, which would have made the heat of solidification too low, due to the wax not fully releasing its heat energy. To better understand the experiment that was preformed, summery questions were asked. The first question asked was, â€Å"The heat of combustion of wax is 45,000 J/g. Explain why there is such a large difference between the heat of solidification and heat of combustion in terms of the type of change†.To answer the question, a response was made: â€Å"Due to the heat of combustion of wax being the heat released from the chemical reaction between oxygen and wax, it is a chemical change and because the heat of solidification of wax is a physical change and chemical changes release a significantly larger amount of heat then physical changes, the heat of combustion of wax releases a much larger amount of heat†. The second question asked was â€Å"The amount of heat released by the solidifying was is equal in magnitude to the amount of heat that the wax absorbed when it melted.Explain why this is so in terms of the arrangement of molecules in liquids vs. solids†. To respond to this question the response: â€Å"In order to change the arrangement of molecules from a solid to a liquid state, the wax must absorb a certain amount of heat and in order to return to a solid state, it must release the energy it absorbed. In the last question, the following was asked: â€Å"Predict the effect of the change in the mass of the wax used or volume of water in the calorimeter on the following parameters.Assume all variables remain constant other then the one listed. If twice the amount of wax or half the amount of wa ter was used in the experiment, how would the temperature, heat absorbed by the water and the calculated heat of solidification change. Explain your predictions for the heat of solidification†. In the answer responding to the question, it was stated, â€Å"both the temperature and heat absorbed by the water would increase, however the heat of solidification would stay the same, due to the wax continuing to release the same amount of heat per gram of wax.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Native American DBQ

In an attempt to overcome conflicts with the possession of Native American and, the United States set in place policies that were Often inconsiderate to the Natives, but that they believed to be better economically, politically, and morally. These policies varied from government provided food for the Natives, to the distribution of the new land, and the treatment of Native for their various practices. All of these things greatly affected the course of Native American people and their cultures to this day. As Americans took over more land in the west, they began to kill the buffalo that lived there for supplies in massive amounts.Document C, Figure 16. 2, wows a mound of buffalo skeleton bones that would be shipped to the East for various fertilization purposes and represents the â€Å"extent of the devastation† to the buffalo population. Document C also shows the numerous ways that Native Americans used the buffalo in their everyday life. Various purposes that the buffalo serv ed were food from meat and fat, tools and weapons from the bones, clothing from the hide of the buffalo, and many others uses on the long list. No part of the buffalo was wasted by the Natives.When Americans came to their land and slaughtered the population, the Natives were left without any supplies for living. The Natives were forced to live off of food that was provided for them by the government, even though it was the same white settlers who took away their food supply in the first place (Document C). Economically, this helped the United States. They had more land to sell and make money from, and they benefited off of the buffaloes. This was not equally beneficial to the Natives however. They were not even considered by the government that continued to invade their homes and lives.The government may have thought they were helping the Natives by providing them with the small food rations that they did, but the government as actually the root of the Natives food dilemma. There wa s discussion amongst the nation's leaders over what should be done with the newly ceded land. Secretary of the Interior Carl Scours argued that the tribes are â€Å"in the way Of the development Of the country as an obstacle. † To overcome that, his suggestion was to give the Natives portions of the land as reservations, but that sections within that land be used by the government (Document B).In 1 887, Congress passed the Dates Severalty Act that allowed the President to resurvey Native American land reservations if e see fit that the land could be advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes (Document E). Then in 1889, Theodore Roosevelt stated that it was obvious for them to â€Å"break up the Indian reservations, disregard the tribal governments, allot the land in severalty, and treat Indians as we do other citizens,† and that they are respecting Natives more than the Natives have respected them (Document F).It is made clear though that the Natives wish to be left unbuttered, both them and the land. In a letter to Roosevelt and the â€Å"Washington Chiefs† they express their concerns with how they farm and retreat the Hopi land. The Natives had a certain cycle for farming the land that could be ruined by the settlers (Document H). The Americans did not consider this Hopi petition though. This was a political move to prove to the Natives that they were a â€Å"weaker race† and also to pass legislation that supported it.The Americans may have thought they were doing well to the Natives, as Carl Scours said himself â€Å"To civilize them†¦ And absolute necessity if we mean to save them,† but they Were only disrespecting their land and their requests. One thing that created such a strong barrier between the Natives and the Americans were cultural differences. The Dates Severalty Act allowed for the united States â€Å"to ban crucial aspects of Indian culture, including native practices related to religion, educati on, language, and even dress and hairstyles† (Document C).This shows the type of ignorance that the American people had towards the Native American cultures. They knew nothing about them, yet they banned their practices. These sometimes harsh judgments were driven from fear. Some of the Native American practices legitimately frightened the Americans, particularly, the tribal gatherings where â€Å"men, omen, and children participated in the ritual dance, moving in a circle and singing. † These rituals scared them so much, that in December 1 890, â€Å"U. S. Troops attacked and killed several hundred Indians† (Document G).The American people again may have thought they were cleansing the Natives, but were only being inconsiderate to them as people. Their actions were morally unjustifiable. This time period has a long lasting effect on the world. Entire tribes and cultures died because of the mistreatment and misjudgment of the Natives. Whether or not the American people thought they were helping in some way r another, they were only destroying lives as if they truly were just â€Å"obstacles' and the nation's course of development.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Home Away From Home

Each small step it took to move into my new home meant bigger and brighter responsibilities. From the drive down to IPFW to when I laid my head down to sleep was a positive moment that changed my life. This transition was the beginning of a new chapter in my life that I was proud to accomplish. Getting to this stage in my life I have yet to step foot in what was in store for my future. The morning of August 19th only a yawn away, anxiety ran through my body like a strike of lightening. I was feeling so many emotions I was not sure how to express how excited I was to be moving into an entirely new environment. As I prepared for the big move I also felt a sense of sadness in the air, here I was my mother’s only girl leaving off for college. While reviewing my old room checking just to see if everything was set I found myself sitting on the corner of the sheet less bed reminiscing on the good and bad memorize I held behind the walls of this house. I found it ironic that even though this place was so hard to forget it was easy to let go. As the road trip begun I realized that this was it, and there was no turning back. Everyone was saying their goodbyes even though they realize that it was not forever. The van was packed to its maximum, and the ride was roughly two hours away. I had to cease the moment and go to sleep or at least attempt to get some rest. I sat and watched cars pass by and I felt the stretch of distance from home I was becoming, I wondered if any of the cars I saw were headed to the same place as I was. I can honestly say that this day did not go according to plan. There was an issue that occurred of whether or not I was staying in my assigned room or moving into another, so part of the day was a little stressful. At the same time I could not let it get to me and effect what I had to get accomplished for the remainder of the day. In the mist of all that commotion I realize that life is full of obstacles waiting to hit you as soon as you turn the page of a chapter in your life. It is up to you if you allow something to hinder your goals and success. Entering the home of IPFW I was waiting to feel welcomed, like I was home again, but deep down I knew that it was not time to feel at home when I did not have the keys to my room. All kinds of thoughts began to run through my head because in a matter of hours I would be on my own to take care of myself. During the next couple hours I started to feel independent because I had keys to my dorm. As I walked up to the door my mom had a video camera watching me put in my key for the first time. It tickled me a little to know that this moment was just as big to her as it was to me. We began to bring in my belongings, boxes already labeled to where they belonged. I was so thankful to have some of my family there to help me unpack and it gave us more time to spend with each other before they left on their journey back to South Bend. The more it became closer for me to be alone the more I thought about how I never had this much responsibility handed to me at one time. At this time I began to feel overwhelmed, but I did not panic and become all worked up about the situation. There was no room for mistakes, even though I truly knew that I was going to make a lot of them. Getting to know a place was another task that would add on my experience. Later on we took a small trip to do some more last minute shopping for food. As the times go by, I realize that in a matter of time there will be no more running to my parents for help; because there was only me. I knew that from here on out that I had to build myself confidence and take on my own responsibilities. At this moment I am still absorbing the fact that I am going to be on my own. As the seconds go by I am becoming more comfortable with the fact that I have me, myself, and I to depend on for the rest of my life starting when my family walk out the doors of my dorm room. When I was here alone finishing up the last touches of my room and new home, I waited for my roommate to arrive. I was very glad that I knew her previous to coming down to Fort Wayne. As soon as we both ended our goodbyes with our families we just took a second to soak in our new life. I realize that soon the weekend would come to an end and class would begin, all fun and games will have to be set aside. Before I could do that, for one small moment I had to just prance around and jump on my bed. I did not really have a valid reason to why, but I felt the urge to express myself in a goofy manner. Once again I found myself sitting on the corner of the bed thinking about the future this time, and what it took for me to get there. This moment that lasted throughout the course of the day was a step that I was ready to take, but yet not sure where it would take me. Starting from that day my life would never be the same. Each day was all about survival on my own. I knew in order from me to make it through college I had to become socially active with my peers and life around campus. I take this moment and look at the negative and turn it into a positive because without negativity I do not think that we would able to appreciate the values of positivity. From that period on I have to rely on myself to fix my next meal, wake myself and be prepared for my next class. There is no room for dwelling on the past and wishing for what i do not have because it is not going to help me when it is not present. This moment set me up for a new beginning of my life and career. Decisions waiting to be made of the unknown. From this point I was an independent adult and no longer living under rules that I had to ask permission. The way I see it is I am free! When the day was finally complete I rested my head on the pillow and prepare for the following day. This moment help me become the person that I am today, someone that is driven to improve my abilities to better my skills and accomplish way more then what my eyes can envision.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Balance Sheet and Following Account Balances

Retained earnings 109,oho 712,000 712. 000 b. Actual sales for December and budgeted sales for the next four months are as follow s: – December (actual) 2800 units It is expected that sales will increase by 40% in the month of January and by a further 50% in the next month. The following month sales would drop by 50% an d then will will ream remain in cons Tanta for for the next next 2 moon months this – The management will not alter the selling price, which is currently $100 – Management wants finished goods inventory to be 20% of the following month's sales – One units of finished goods require 2 kilos of raw materials. –The price of materials is currently $10 per kilo and is expected to increase by 50% in February hereafter it will remain constant for the next four months. – The management wants raw materials inventory to be 10% of the following month's p reduction needs – Each unit of product requires 2 hours of direct materials fo r completion. – The laborers are expected to work for a total of 4000 hours per month at a wage rat e Of $6 per hour. Any additional work requires an overtime payment of time and a half. – Manufacturing overhead: variable: $5 per labor hours worked; fixed $17000 per MO nth. – Sales are 20% for cash and 80% on credit.Half of the credit sales are collected in the month following sale while the remaining half is collected in second month after the sales. The accounts receivable at December 31 are a result of December credit sales. – Monthly expenses are budgeted as follows: salaries and wages, $10,000 per month: a advertising, $70,000 per month; shipping, 5% of sales; other expenses, 3% of sales. Depreciation, I including depreciation on new assets acquired during the quarter, will be $42,000 for the quart err. – One- half of a month's raw materials purchases is paid for in the month of purchase; the to her half is paid in the following month.Shipping expenses are paid in the month following the shipment. , while advertising I s paid in one month's advance. During February, the company will purchase a new copy machine for $1,700 cash. Du ring March, other equipment will be purchased for cash at a cost of $84,500. – During January, the company will declare and pay $45,000 in cash dividends. – Management wants to maintain a minimum cash balance of $30,000. The company h as an agreement with a local bank that allows the company to borrow in increments of $1,0 00 at the beginning of each month. The interest rate on these loans is 1% per month and for is