Friday, December 27, 2019

Benedick in William Shakespeares Much Ado About Nothing...

Benedick in William Shakespeares Much Ado About Nothing In the first extract, Benedick and Claudio are alone so the focus of the audience is on them. Shakespeare makes all the characters leave the scene except for Benedick and Claudio, which shows that whilst Beatrice and the others are more sociable and keep with the group, Benedick and Claudio want some time to themselves. This shows that Benedick does not like large crowds of people and is automatically portrayed as an introverted character. It is also an ideal time for Claudio to talk to Benedick about Hero because he thinks about her so much that the entry of their conversation is about her. â€Å"Benedick, didst thou note the daughter of Signor†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"Is’t come to this? In faith hath not the world one man but he will wear his cap with suspicion? Shall I never see a bachelor of threescore again?† His language suggests that he could be angry, but inside he feels upset that his friend wants to get married and that he feels left out. In the second extract, Benedick’s monologue suggests that he will never find the right woman because, â€Å"Till all graces be in one woman, one woman shall not come in my grace.† According to Benedick, his ideal wife has to be perfect, but no one is perfect so he will never find a wife. Benedick believes that women are untrustworthy and he mentions in the previous extract, â€Å"I will do myself the right to trust none. And the fine is, for the which I may go the finer, I will live a bachelor.† He is still very sarcastic and somewhat childish as he calls Claudio, ‘Monsieur Love!’, but he may be jealous of him inside. Don Pedro, Leonato and Claudio all take part in the gulling of Benedick. Benedick’s monologue afterwards has a definite change in tone and attitude. â€Å"They say the lady is fair; ‘tis a truth, I can bear them witness; and virtuous; so, I cannot reprove it’ andShow MoreRelatedBenedick And Beatrice In William Shakespeares Much Ado About Nothing1042 Words   |  5 PagesWilliam Shakespeare’s classic comedy Much Ado About Nothing follows the story of the two famous pairs of young lovers; Claudio and Hero, and Benedick and Beatrice. Although mainly following the first pair throughout the text, the relationship between Benedick and Beatrice is followed throughout the text with less attention from the reader, not noticing love forming between the two. Shakespeare sets his text in Messina, a town located on the island of Sicily in Italy. The play mainly takes place atRead MoreBeatrice and Benedick as a Couple in William Shakespeares Much Ado About Nothing13 36 Words   |  6 PagesBeatrice and Benedick as a Couple in William Shakespeares Much Ado About Nothing Much Ado About Nothing is a Shakespeare play set in Mecina. It is a comedy, about Don Pedro and his friends. The play focuses on the relationships of the characters, especially that of Beatrice/Benedick and Claudio/Hero. The two romances follow two different ideas, one an average romance in Shakespeares day, the other a not so average romance. Beatrice and Benedicks history together isRead MoreThe Portrayal of Benedick and Beatrice in William Shakespeares Much Ado About Nothing702 Words   |  3 PagesThe Portrayal of Benedick and Beatrice in William Shakespeares Much Ado About Nothing At the beginning of William Shakespeares play Much Ado About Nothing he portrays Beatrice and Benedick as two argumentative young people. However he also portrays them as being attracted to each other, this becomes clear because the first thing Beatrice says in the play is I pray you, is Signor Mountanto returnd from the wars or no? She is talking about Benedick asking the messengerRead More Much Ado About Nothing Essay: Beatrice, Benedick, and Love879 Words   |  4 PagesBeatrice, Benedick, and Love in Much Ado About Nothing William Shakespeare’s Much Ado About Nothing   is set in thirteenth century Italy.   The plot of the play can be categorized as comedy or tragicomedy .  Ã‚  Ã‚   Villainy and scheming combine with humor and sparkling wordplay in Shakespeares comedy of manners. Claudio is deceived into believing that Hero, is unfaithful. Meanwhile, Benedick and Beatrice have a kind of merry war between them, matching wits in repartee.   This paper will attemptRead MoreEssay on Compare and Contrast: Claudio and Benedick1375 Words   |  6 PagesClaudio and Benedick Shakespeare’s comedy, Much Ado About Nothing, is a play that follows a small group of friends from a high-class society in Massina. Two of this group are friends are Claudio and Benedick. In the beginning of the play they are seemingly similar, in that they both are of an upper-class upbringing and do their best to maintain their social reputation. The characters are made as to enhance their differences by the end of the play; they are foils to one another. Both Benedick and ClaudioRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Much Ado About Nothing898 Words   |  4 PagesBeatrice, Benedick, and Love in Much Ado About Nothing William Shakespeare’s Much Ado About Nothing is set in thirteenth century Italy. The plot of the play can be categorized as comedy or tragicomedy . Villainy and scheming combine with humor and sparkling wordplay in Shakespeare s comedy of manners. Claudio is deceived into believing that Hero, is unfaithful. Meanwhile, Benedick and Beatrice have a kind of merry war between them, matching wits in repartee. This paper will attempt toRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Much Ado About Nothing909 Words   |  4 PagesWilliam Shakespeare’s play Much Ado about Nothing traverses the complex social, and emotional trials and triumphs of romantic relationships; Shakespeare’s perspective on the subject is both very similar to ours today, and different. Although filled with sexual innuendos, and humorous trickery and shenanigans, Much Ado about Nothing also dives into the complexities of social anxieties, defense mechanisms to cope with the social pressures, and the emotions involved. First, the characters in MuchRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Much Ado About Nothing1317 Words   |  6 PagesMuch to Do About Noting Deceit is the act of concealing or misrepresenting the truth. Deceit plays an important role in the plot of Shakespeare’s play Much Ado about Nothing. It also has a large influence on the relationships of the play. Much Ado about Nothing is a play written by William Shakespeare who is widely considered the greatest dramatist of all time. William Shakespeare was baptized on April 26, 1564, in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. From roughly 1594 onward he was an important memberRead More Comparing Katharina, of The Taming of the Shrew and Beatrice of Much Ado About Nothing1317 Words   |  6 PagesComparing Shakespeare’s Katharina, of The Taming of the Shrew and Beatrice, of Much Ado About Nothing Shakespeare’s Katharina, of The Taming of the Shrew and Beatrice, of Much Ado About Nothing, are very similar characters.   Each is plagued with unrequited love, and depressed by their inability to woo the suitor of their choosing.   Neither will accept the passive female role expected by society. Yet, both women seem to accept their role as wife by the conclusion.   Upon further examination, oneRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Much Ado About Nothing1285 Words   |  6 PagesMuch Ado About Nothing, is a comedic play by William Shakespeare thought to have been written in 1598 and 1599, as Shakespeare was approaching the middle of his career. (Wikipedia) This timeless play is generally considered one of Shakespeare’s best comedies, because it combines a cheerful mood with an intricate series of deceptions and miscommunications. It’s known for its hilarity, honor, shame and court politics. Shakespeare depicts different kinds of loving relationships- romantic love, family

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Critical Thinking A Key for Nurses Essay - 687 Words

Critical thinking is a nursing process that includes reflective practice, problem solving and decision making which are connected to one another. The definition of critical thinking is transferring and applying knowledge and skills in a new situation. The critical thinking is needed in a lot of aspects of the nurses’ job such as when the nurses need to provide the precise identification in the specific problems had by the patients. They need to be in detail and also critical to themselves in every time in order to be able to provide identification precisely. When you have the profession in nursing, it is important to be critical thinker. The nurses have the high responsibilities and their responsibilities are increasing from time to time.†¦show more content†¦She was handling a critical patient with heart disease. During her duty time she discovers there is some changing in the cardiac monitor that shows that patient’s heart rate is dropping. She starts to asse ss that patient by checking all the cable which is connected to the patient to make sure everything going right. In the same time she asked for help from her colleagues to call the doctor. With in a few second she found that all cable connected properly but the patient has cardiac arrest and doctor arrived at the same time and they start to give the patient cardiac massage. When they finish the resuscitation, patient recovered from this problem. In this situation she saved the time and checked the patient again while the message reached to her doctor. As result of this, she saved patient’s life. This is because she uses her critical thinking criteria and she manages her time, she does her right decision and she makes good assessment and communication with other health care provider. When a nurse has a problem with any elements in the skill of critical thinking or she neglects any skill process; this will lead to a bad decision. One good instance is an incident that occurred in our hospital. One nurse working in medical-surgical department was having a patient who had head injury. Accordingly, that patient was uncooperative. One morning when the assigned nurse went to check on him, she found the patient lying on the floor. Only to find out, patient wentShow MoreRelatedCritical Thinking And Learning Are Interrelated Lifelong Processes1631 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"Thinking and learning are interrelated lifelong processes† (Institute, 2013). The knowledge and every day experiences gained in the nursing profession, help nurses’ to make thoughtful and appropriate decisions. Nurses are constantly involved in making decisions within their practice. These decisions are constantly affected by situations where there is no single or absolutely correct res ponse, therefor critical thinking, reflective practice and analysing in health are three of the key componentsRead MoreDifference in competencies between ADN and BSN Essay1113 Words   |  5 PagesIN COMPETENCIES BETWEEN ADN AND BSN A nurse is a healthcare professional who is trained care for sick. The key roles in nursing are promotion of health and prevention of illness, and also education, research, advocacy, health system management and promotion of safe environment. There are two different categories of nurses based on educational level. One is an Associate Degree Nurse (ADN), a 2 year program and other a Baccalaureate Degree Nurse (BSN), a four year program. Though educationalRead MoreBecoming a Nurse or Midwife Essay1050 Words   |  5 Pagesare important for a registered nurse to have and why are they important? A Registered nurse is strongly committed to provide meticulous optimum care to the client. Every nurse has to have the attitude of caring, patience and dedication. Being autonomous in nursing is very important while making decisions and practice and which can be obtained by continual education. According to Potter and Perry (eds 2009), Accountability refers to responsibility of the nurse professionally and legally forRead MoreHow Was My Ideas And Understanding About Critical Thinking Changed?870 Words   |  4 PagesHow was your ideas and understanding about critical thinking changed? There has been a lot of talk about critical thinking during my four years of nursing school, with an array of different meaning and explanation; some was even unfathomable and baffling. Not so long ago, during my early years as a novice nurse, I didn’t pay much attention to the word, critical thinking. From where I used to work, decision making skills of nurses do not have a strong foundation. Every time there was a problem regardingRead MoreEssay about Critical Thinking: A Necessary Tool for Decision Making1296 Words   |  6 PagesAbstract This paper will define the meaning of critical thinking. I will provide an example of a personal experience when critical thinking had to be used. This paper will also examin the benefits and importance of using critical thinking during the decision-making process. What is Critical Thinking? Critical thinking is an essential tool to good decision-making. Everyone has biases or prejudices which can hinder good decision making. Critical thinking varies depending on the underlying motivationRead MoreClayton States School of Nursing Program1028 Words   |  5 Pagescompetent, compassionate, professional nurses with communication and technical skills. Clayton State’s School of Nursing has outlined nine program outcomes or concepts that are part of the Conceptual Curriculum Model. These concepts include caring, communication, critical thinking, human diversity, informatics, interdisciplinary collaboration, nursing therapeutics, professional development, and theory based practice. These program outcomes relate to three nurse and client transitions; health-illnessRead MoreComparison Between The Nurse Educator And Nurse Practitioner944 Words   |  4 PagesComparison and Contrast of the Nurse Educator and Nurse Practitioner Although both advanced practice nurse positions are masters prepared, nurse educators and nurse practitioners are very different roles maintaining complimentary characteristics. A Nurse Educator (NE) is a nurse who teaches and prepares nursing students and various levels from licensed practical nurse to the Nurse Practitioner (NP) graduate student (National League of Nursing, 2014). In contrast a NP will engage patients and familiesRead MoreHow Is Critical Thinking Used Today?1069 Words   |  5 PagesHow is critical thinking used today? This is a typical question that a student in a non-nursing major may ask, but here at the Christ College, we would be happy to answer that for you. As a student nurse, I use and witness critical thinking and clinical reasoning in the clinical field every day. To better understand this topic, I found two articles to read and review. The first article I found is based on education and the second shows the view of a well-practiced nurse. The first article I choseRead MoreKaplan Scavenger Hunt Paper : Analysis1482 Words   |  6 PagesReading Textbooks, Time Management, and Preparing for the Exam. The Remediation by Topic section offers students summaries of topics like Confidentiality, Critical Thinking Skills, and HIPAA. The Focused Review Test section offers an option to create a test to use as a study aid. This paper will give a summary of the topics, Critical Thinking Skills, the NCLEX-RN, and Therapeutic Communication. This paper will also discuss which methods are the most important for students to use to be successfulRead MoreCritical Thinking : Quality Patient Care969 Words   |  4 PagesCritical thinking is a skill that many nurses learn alongside experiences. Situations requiring critical thinking will arise, and whether or not one is familiar with it, it cannot be ignored. Critical thinking helps to determine an appropriate course of action to attain the best possible outcome for the patient and the si tuation. There are many descriptions of critical thinking, but what it really boils down to is quality patient care (Kearney-Nunnery, 2012). By utilizing critical thinking an action

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Portfolio Working Musician

Question: Write an essay on Portfolio of Working Musician. Answer: Portfolio: Reflective essay Working Musician Abstract Making a portfolio as a musician is quite dilemmatic one, this is due to the reason that being a musician you do not know what are the liking and the choices of the people. Being an artist setting a portfolio in the way that people of all likings and styles, like it from all perspectives. We all know that there are different kind of musical artist are there, out of all important parts of the music the main part is recording a song or music and that is what is my role here working as a musician. All the technicalities while recording a song should be concerned properly from all perspectives. This reflective essay will show how passionate I am about music, up to now what was my music journey, what kind of ups and down I faced in the journey, what are the achievements I got and at what progress I moving towards being a better musician. Before choosing a profession you always has a hero figure in your mind (what it is called the inspiration) to whom you want to follow, to be like him and to get the achievements he got because of his hard work. Every profession needs hard work to get the full payback out of it. Lets come with me join my journey by reading this essay and have a look what I am up to. I follow this famous wording said by Bradley Whit ford, Infuse your life with action doesnt wait for it to happen. Make it happen. Make your own future. Make your own hope. Make your own love. And whatever your beliefs, honor your creator not by passively waiting for the grace to come down from upon high, but by doing what you can do to make grace happen, yourself, right now, right down here on earth. A Student Just Like Student I was just a regular student as any other student when I entered the lab/class first day. The focus of being a musician was nowhere near me. With every coming day I feel like a fire has started burning in me. When one day I got the chance to meet one of mainstream music producer, who was a session and recording artist and now he is a music producer Honey Singh and then after seeing his passion for music and how from a small town (Hoshiarpur) guys turned himself as a great artist, inside fire of mine started rushing inside me. This was time when I started taking the things seriously. Here is where my music journey started. After this time my involvement towards understanding the music from the core deepened and started participating in different events. There are different kinds of experiences which I made by participating in different events like basics of recording a music, its technicalities like source force audacity, I will share that experiences in the next few sections. Before I start I want to say that musician are born just like any other person, but the thing that is different in them is when somewhere inside their head some chemical changes are experienced and that changes are the beat of the inner orchestra which is keep on drumming inside and showing the eagerness to comes out. First experience (finding an opportunity) I was walking alone at the corridor thinking about how to make the way to get successful in the music industry and what is the field in which I should enter being working as a musician. I was held up by a mate of mine Joe; he said we have been called to be a part of a team to record a music album. I was got excited by listening this that we are going to Planet Studio. Till the time when I entered that studio up to the time when I was just only familiar with music and sound and nothing more than that and was nothing their like being a music producer. When I entered the Planet Studio I saw that the technicians are arranging the things at the right place to make a perfect ambience around to record the music album. When we are approaching nearer and nearer to the area of shooting, a person came up to ask that how come you guys here? then we introduced our selves that the organizing committee has called us to help in recording the music album. Then he escorted us to the area where the mai n recording will be going to record. While going towards the recording room I was hearing the sound which was playing by the pianist, it added like a scoop of melody which entered into my blood through my ears, till the time when I entered the recording room it was like feeling outrageous and overwhelmed by the sound. While sitting in the recording room my inner soul was still with the sound which I heard of the piano outside the recording room. The time we were waiting in that recording room, the instincts inside crouching me to hear that sound of piano again. On the other side of the room, technicians were setting the sound system perfectly in studios and managers were assigning the places to the musicians that will be going to perform in the music album. Suddenly a knock of the door voice strike to our ears, and this was the sound engineer Tom Lowry; he greeted us and welcomed us on the sets. He called us to meet other members of the team, which were helping in setting up the other things. The people we met were the sound engineer, technician and the assistant technician; their names were Dan Donnelly and Steve respectively. By getting their introduction we get know that what were the sections that these people were handling and the sound engineer parted me and my friend Joe and instructed the technician and the assistant technician what were the responsibilities and the sections which they had to divide according to the work with us. I was with the assistant technician who was also the incharge of lighting effects in the arena and my mate Joe was with the technician. At that time we didnt know what were the responsibilities they would be going to give us. Steve took me to the area where the main section of the recording area and guided me how to check the sound system whenever it would be asked to so. He told me the technical aspects of the system i.e the sections of the mixing console which is to be used while checking the sound system. There were other sections too which I was asked to handle like checking the position of the recoding instruments and if any case any type of fault would be found before the recording starts, the report should be with the main technicians, so that they could remove it well before the recording starts. It was the recording of the productio n house named Sony Music and it was the recording of one of the famous singer of industry Saki. On the other side my mate Joe was leaded by technician Dan, he assigned him the work to handle the ground force which were handling the sound systems and the checking of the sound system at every section of the arena. While he was busy finding the faults in sound systems I was busy in the recording room checking the recording system with the assistant technician. In a little span of time I learn many technical aspects of the recording system like source force audacity, different tempos and lines of dynamics etc. as Steve guided it. When I was checking the headphone sound quality which kind of sound is created when playing different ornaments and instruments, at that when Steve start speaking few words like123, 123 checking the system, his sound comes in the recording room like the sound of crackling elephant sound because his voice was quite heavy and his throat was sour. Then after about 2 hour our all system was totally set up from all aspects. After couple of minutes the team memb ers of singer Saki came up with the production team of Sony Music. The stage was all set for the singer to get started. The main theme of the album was love and hate. Then after few minutes of break the singer Saki came up on stage with his lyrics in his right hand. Then the pianist played the start up tone of the song and following him other musicians started playing their instruments in a proper rhythm and here came up the sound of the singer in the recording room. The experience which I get while standing in the recording room during the session, it was the moment when I made up my mind that I would be a music producer because the melody and the technicalities while recording could be experienced, there is no other place in the world which can provide you that experience. The sound which strikes in my years while recording music making me thirstier of being on the place where the recorder was recording the voice. The tempos and sounds checking at the same time when some kind of bleak sounds experienced while recording. The recording room is the p lace where whole of the music depends. The faults that occur while singer like if we take an example if the singer make some mistake while singing he/she got out of rhythm then it can be clearly found in the recording room and from there the music producer/sound engineer can give proper instruction to the singer that he is going out of the way of the lyrics and the tune. This was my first lesson of being a sound engineer that being a sound engineer/music producer you must know all technical aspects of the mixing console and out of all that you should very much sound about the technicalities of the music. These technicalities include the tempo of the music at which it is going, genre, instruments sound checking, comparing every hit on the right note as required by the song. Without having a strong knowledge of the music nobody can be a music producer. This was an eye opening experience for me. After that recording I was called up by the sound engineer along with my friend Joe. It was quite a hectic day for us but was quite a life changing experience for me. When I came back to my place then I was very much sure that I will be a music producer like Honey Singh. He was institution of inspiration for me and after this practical experience I got all the answers of my questions which hit my mind every single day like what is your passion, what you want to be in your life, would spend the life as nobody knows and will be dead like any other common man die, where is the fire inside you and etc.. Now I got the way which I have to follow and there was no second thought in my mind about the choice. This first experience of mine which showed me the path what are the teachings needed to be a perfect musician. Teachings, the way out Now getting into the technicalities of being a perfect musician needs the basic teachings which are needed to be successful. The teachings which helped me to reach my goal are mentioned as below:- Different recording methods Music theory Music dictionary Reading the printable melodies of music These were the important learning and teaching which made me a musician today working as sound engineer/music producer in a studio. Now let me explain these teachings one by one so that we all can in touch deeply with the technicalities which I learnt to reach here:- Different recording methods: - There are basically three types of recording methods that are used by the musicians. These are as follows:- Acoustic recordings Electronic recordings In the box recordings The few of the basic elements of these three kinds of the recordings techniques are explained below:- Acoustic recordings: - The acoustic recording is simply the catching up of the sound in the microphones and that signal is converted into electronic signal so that they can be captured or recorded. In the todays world these recordings are in the computers and the hard disks. Whether the language they understand is digital or analogues they have the same basic throughout. They all have acoustic recording styles. Electronic recordings: - This is the second method of recording the music. The basic idea of introducing the electronic recording is to totally bypassing the acoustic altogether. There are many instruments in which the electronic recordings are used in the todays world like bas and guitar and with their output the amplifier get attached to boost the voice. Especially the DI boxes are used to store the electronic records. As DI boxes have the capability to store high impedance signals recordings. In the box recordings:- The third type of recording is the In the Box recording that means it is the recording directly into the computer. This type of recording is stores in the actual recording application directly in the memory of the computer and with the advancements it can be editable at any phase whenever it is required. This is the modern way of recording the music. As this application is also available with the smart phone where you edit the recorded music in the way that required. Music theory: - Basically music theory is the subfield of the musicology. This is generally known as the basic academic studies of different sections of music. There are various factors that are needed to control through the music theory like the pitch, rhythm, harmony and forms. These are the most fundamental elements of the music theory which are always needed to be controlled. Music dictionary: - There is basic requirement of understand the various musical meanings of the terms used in the music line. The music technical words like accelerando, accompanimal, ballad, barcarolle, chamber orchestra, chanson etc. the meaning of these words always needed to be known because without that nobody can understood the meaning of the musical technical words. So they always needed to be remembered. Reading the printable melodies of the music:- The following are the few symbols of the printable noted and what is meaning of each not is shown below:- Each melody sign have its important in the music terms and all the notes that should be hit properly according to the requirement of the music. The proper reading of these sign needed to be a musician in every aspect whether you are a sound engineer or a general technician. So these are the teachings which I have learnt to be an effective and well knowledgeable musician. Nothing is impossible; all you need is the right direction to lead the life. Learning outcomes My job working as music producer/sound engineer is to check what are technical aspects of recording music because it is the most basic branch of any kind of music, which is listened by the people. Checking the frequency at which the music is being recorded, like we have to think like an engineer and even as the listener that where it is fall out of the tune which Klink to the ear. As talking about my current experience being a sound engineer, I have learnt so much of the technical aspects of recording music. What I get to know about music is that you have to be mentally fit, power of concentration is very important and above this technical knowledge of all the variation which are needed to be done during recording music. Taking the concern of all the previous experiences of mine, I am using it with full passion and craziness to record the best music as it is recorded never before. Earlier the day I was talking to the bunch of mates about music and what are the missions of creating music. The definition which comes out of the discussion consists of few words which are very important which I remarked:- Mission of music is a duty a task, a campaign, a beautiful journey of life, feeling the inner soul. Peoples group in different cities, in a religious order, in a business. Place an area where music is being listened or a building. An event such as wedding of people. I feel that music is a pedagogical way of teaching the music. According to my experiences I came to know that mission of music is to:- Restore harmony with the god. Feeling the beauty of the inner soul through music which found the way to see god inside. It is the way which a person can celebrate the good news. It reunites the people of different culture and areas at one place. It is to teach someone the core of humanity, baptize and nurture the humanity in a beautiful way so that it presumes the world of angels. It is the way in which you can successfully respond to the needs of human. The melodious way to get in touch with the unexpected needs of the people which they cant express by speaking or telling to someone. The music helps in addressing the unjustified structure of society and brings people to the experience the loneliness inside the human heart. Music give definition to the words which a person wants to say to loved ones without saying any word to them. It gives feel of cold breeze to the inner soul. This is what I learned from that my ideal Honey Singh. He is the man who dedicates all his composition, recordings and production to the name of the god. I am always trying to move in positive way, by taking the name of the god so that every music album which I am recording or will going to record will make me nearer to the god. This is what trying to do with my latest contracts. My current experiences of being a musician is quite an exciting one as I am working with the Sony Music about the music recording and production of one song which will be the part of a movie. The singer of the song is the Saki; I am quite excited working in the team its like never before experience. The deep knowledge of every deep aspect of music recording is with me and using the old saying that practice make man perfect which I am doing right now. This is the way I am leading my life being a music producer, would you like to be the part my life? References Bonard, Jean-Marc (January 2001), "The Physicist's Guide to the Orchestra",European Journal of Physics22(1): 89101,arXiv:physics/0008053,doi:1088/0143-0807/22/1/309 A Rowland-Jones,Playing Recorder SonatasClarendon PressISBN 0-19-879001-5 Information about makers is summarised from sleeve notes of David Munrow'sThe art of the Recorder, 1975, written by Edgar Hunt, then Head of Renaissance and Baroque music atTrinity College of Music, London Donald Murray et al.Musical Instruments: History, Technology, and Performance of Instruments of Western Music, Oxford University Press, 2004.ISBN 0-19-816504-8. p.122

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Rugmaker of Mazari Sharif Essay free essay sample

The first of these, Afghanistan, is where Najaf Mazari was born and raised. We see that many of his core moral beliefs and traits are as a result of this upbringing. Looking at his family life we can see how the influence of his older brother Gorg Ali impacted on Najaf. He thought of his older brother gorg Ali as a father figure, as his real father was killed in the war meaning Gorg Ali became responsible for the upbringing of his siblings. Najaf describes Gorg Ail in the text as a gentle person, contrary to most Afghani fathers who offered a tougher, more realistic outlook on life in Afghanistan. An Afghani father has failed in his duty to his sons if he raises dreamers. This is a strong statement and we can therefore conclude that Gorg Ali did fail by Afghani standards in a sense that Najaf Mazari dreamed of a better life outside of the sand and rubble that is Afghanistan. We will write a custom essay sample on Rugmaker of Mazari Sharif Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In saying this Gorg Al ultimately succeded as Najaf was able to take this hope gven to him and put it towards the goal of living a better and safer life, which he was able to achieve. Najaf describes Gorg Ali as the sort of person who holds things together. What is meant by this statement is that Gorg Ali was against the on-going violence. Not being the sort of person to break but rather, repar damage done. He wanted harmony and peace he was not the type who wrenches things apart for the sake of their own pride and illusion of superiority. It is also meant in a family sense. Najaf gives Gorg Ali credit for his ability to hold his family together. Najaf is clearly in favour of Gorg Ali and does not believe in war to solve problems. We can see that Najaf is against war through the emotive language he uses. He talks about witnessing several explosions in my lifetime, always unwillingly. We can see through these examples that Najaf’s identity is strongly defined by the on-going war in Afghanistan and by the beliefs and wisdom of his brother Gorg Ali. Najaf’s ethnicity also would have impacted heavily on his character. Being a Hazara, he is looked down upon by society in Afghanistan, in particular the Pashtuns. They think of the Hazara as second class citizens and treat them accordingly. This would have further increased Najaf’s distinct hate for violence and discrimination. Pashtuns being mainly Sunni Muslims and the Hazara being Shiite Muslims this is the most prominent origin of the conflict: the conflict between the two sub religions. The reason I bring this point up is the capture of Najaf by the Taliban, during a time when the Taliban where at full strength. His lack of decisiveness as to which side he is on due to his hate for war, and the fact that he is of Hazara decent (The Hazara had killed many Taliban defending Mazar-e-Sharif) gave the Taliban ample reason for his capture. When captured, Najaf was tortured brutally and describes his feelings as not caring whether I live or die. This statement shows how horrific the torture was to the point of men confessing to what they had not done, fought against the Taliban, to hasten their deaths. Men just stopped caring, practically taking their own lives. Najaf was not one of these men. Although he was eventually released the psychological impact this event in his early life would have been huge. Even after being thrown out of the gate of the compound, Najaf still believed he would be shot in the back of the head. Having not been through this sort of pain before I cannot say how it would affect a person, to be without hope. Although I can say that the effects would surely not be positive and recovery would be long and slow, as if exiting the worst sort of depression imaginable. His character would be shaped massively by this event in his life. Najaf’s religion would have shaped his way of thinking and moral values through the beliefs he holds in the Shia religious denomination of the Islam faith. There are the physical idea’s such as not being allowed to consume alcohol or pork. Then there are the spiritual beliefs about god, and how he watches over everyone and has a plan for our lives. The shrine of Ali is a spiritual centre for the Islam faith. It is a large ornate shrine within the city of Mazar-e-Sharif. The shrine of Ali is not considered famous by Muslims; it is too holy to be famous. Examining this quote we can see the dedication to the Islam faith that Afghani men such as Najaf Mazari possess. Najaf is not bothered by the thoughts of others. Najaf knows this and his decision to travel dangerously to Australia must have been made in part by his belief that God will deliver him safely and has a plan for his future. This idea of being impacted by where we are raised is very prominent in western society also, albiet in a slightly different manour. In my own life I can say I have been greatly influenced by my family in the way I act and the food I eat. Friends of mine have impacted on the thngs I like and dislike. My school has imacted on the path I have chosen to take in life and my religious beliefs. Very similar methods of learning are shared between myself and Najaf in our early lives, although the teachings may be different. This point in his life I am very familiar with and can see how his identity has been originaly shaped by where he lives, how he lives and who he lives his life with. Woomera, a holding camp for illegal refugees, is drastically different from his previous life in Afghanistan. It could be described as a state of limbo between the two countries. Najaf Mazari is confronted with many challenges that are presented to him both directly and indirectly by the Australian authorities. These challenges are presented for various reasons although the ultimate goal is to decide whether the refugee is suitable or not to enter the Australia. Woomera is a prison, certainly, but it is also a school. In a sense Najaf’s traits and values are being moulded to fit that of a successful Australian. The first challenge that Najaf is concerned with is what the Australians are looking for. He is not given a list of any sorts to determine this. Here I am, my name is Najaf Mazari, do you have a use for me in your country? It is a valid question, and we can see the exasperation in the words Najaf is saying, having lived through explosions and torture, sailing to an uncertain destination on an unworthy ship and now he is unable to please the Australians because he does not know what will please them. They seem to think that anyone who does not have white skin lives entirely on rice. We can clearly see the lack of understanding between the two parties. Najaf’s upbringing and his personalities are evident through his actions taken. I try to make myself useful and ask for work and obtain a job in the kitchen. This would be very pleasing to the Australian prison authorities as it shows not only his willingness to work, but the initiative he takes to be useful in the society he is in and therefore will probably take outside of Woomera. Another example of Najaf’s initiative and learning is the English language. Najaf knows he must learn it not only for use if he is to be granted a Visa but also to properly communicate to his interviewer and give himself a greater chance of being granted this visa. Najaf finds an Iranian who speaks English and asks him for assistance, In God’s name, I implore you to interoperate for my Afghani’s. This proposal is indicative of several things. Firstly, that Najaf is able to use his initiative and ask for assistance as he has shown earlier when asking for a job. Najaf is also asking the assistance of a Non-Afghani, an outsider, to help his friends learn. This is a big step because rivalry between the five countries turns into tiny wars. We can see that the relationship between refugees from different countries is not the most pleasant. In saying this, Najaf is willing to overcome their differences and ask for help from an Iranian. This shows that Najaf not only disapproves conflict, but is also willing to show his weakness to a fellow refugee. We are all here for the same reason, starting a new life in a new country. Though the Australians may not have noticed this particular incident they would certainly get the idea the Najaf is enthusiastic, willing to please and willing to learn. These are traits he would have gained throughout his childhood as a sheep farmer and Rugmaker which goes to show the usefulness these working-man’s traits can have in the future. So while in Woomera his core values remain the same where his traits and actions are being moulded to fit Australian society. For me, in my life this was Dilworth. Just like Najaf I was thrust into ths strange place which I knew very little about. I can understand how he felt isolated and alone during this time as he knew no-one and nothing of the customs rules or expectations. I know that it is a very slow proccess but through time and experience your learn the etacate. Though Dilworth and Woomera may not share many smlarities, there altmate purpose is shared. To send people out to live their lives outside of the gates successfully all the while weeding out the sour apples. I know that Dilworth has taught me many valuable life skills and am thankful that I will have the experience I do when I go out into the world. I have, in a sense, had my identity shaped by a halfway house between the old and the new. Living a successful life in a first world European country can be said to be vastly different from a life in a middle-eastern country like Afghanistan. Living in Australia is more complex in the sense that it requires a lot more effort to live peacefully. By this I mean that things such as IRD forms, taxes and electricity bills inhibit peace somewhat. Najaf is aware of this: When the very big problems are fixed 100 smaller problems are revealed. Things such as Credit cards are magic to him. People pay with plastic in this country. Life becomes much more complicated for Najaf due to his lack of self-reliance. This comes from being in Woomera for a long period of time. Najaf goes from the relatively simply society in Afghanistan to a sheltered environment such as Woomera where he is provided for completely, to a much more complex society. In Woomera his fate was in the hands of others, he was unable to decide what happened to himself other than to be a good and useful person. Whether he got into Australia or not was not in his means. Now having actually entered Australia, Najaf would find himself quite alienated from the rest of the society, knowing no-one on a personal level when he began his Australian journey. Najaf faced the cultural problem of terms; he only understood things on a superficial level. We can see this through his search for a place to live. When asked if he was smoke free he replies, ‘It’s ok ill smoke outside’ not fully grasping what the term meant. It is the same scenario when asked if he is a student. Although he believes he is, due to his learning of the English language and culture, he is not the desired type of student asked for being young and attending university. This becomes frustrating for Najaf, who becomes increasingly intollarible of things stating I began to miss having my problems in the hands of others as they were in Woomera. It is many of these small issues that make life in Australia hard for him, although with each day he is learning and his identity is growing more westernised. Things that many people in western culture take for granted, such as a shower, amaze Najaf. The sheer number of cars on the road and even the way people walk on the footpaths is foreign to him. Najaf, in saying this, is not completely unaware of the line between what is acceptable and what is not in this foreign country. The example he gives of this is his first employer who he describes as a witch of a woman. She does not give Najaf the leniency or sympathy of others who have helped him, instead making him work twelve hour shifts on minimum wage while constantly scrutinising his work. He shows the reader that he is not completely ignorant of the world and leaves the job with the unjust employer. Looking at the wider world we realise that najaf is not the only refugee, far from it. Many people, especially in poor, war torn countries are looking for the salvatin of a new life, one where the worry is on living a successful life, rather than a safe one. Western countries such as Australia and New Zealand contribute to this effort taking in their share of refugee’s offering them a home. Throug agencies such as, housing New Zealand and in najaf’s case the Australian housing office, the world is offering people like Najaf the chance to make himself a use in your country by providing housing and an allowance. As he put it. As a New Zealander who is part of a country who offers help I feel a sense of pride at this act of giving. In a sense these schemes are providing refugees with a new life. In Najaf’s case this comes in the form of an Australian visa. I believe the change Najaf would have undergone would have been quite durastic. It is very clear through interperating Najaf’s autobiography, the changes that Najaf has undergone through these three distinct part of his life. How he has matured and learned and then thrust into the unknown to fend for himself and we are able to make the connections between this and other examples of people havng given up their lives in search of peace.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

‘Gender inequality is no longer relevant in today’s society.’ Do you agree free essay sample

While surfing the Internet recently, I came across an interesting blog post on the wildly popular website, tumblr, that tried explaining the reasons why women have a higher chance of getting employed. The picture that was portrayed on the blog depicted a drawing that said the more cleavage exposed during the job interview, the higher the chance of being employed. This clearly shows that gender inequality is still prevalent in today’s society. It seems irrelevant that even with women being astronauts, presidents and fighter pilots who are in such powerful positions like the honorable Aung San Suu Kyi, women are still regarded as ‘toys’ in today’s modern technological age. Though the advent of feminism and advocacy for women’s rights is stronger, we are still facing gender inequality problems. The empowerment of women has yet to see its full potential. The world still conforms to the conventional notion that men should be the sole breadwinners. We will write a custom essay sample on ‘Gender inequality is no longer relevant in today’s society.’ Do you agree or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This would mean that women should be left to deal with the family and household chores while their husbands go out and conquer the world. The phenomenon of women bringing back a higher wage compared to their other half is considered bizarre. In Asia especially, it is rarely seen that women earn a higher income compared to men. The example of Singapore’s income tax return form strengthens the point that women’s wage being supplementary to that of a man’s is highly likely. A successful woman, in our current generation, is one who is able to juggle both menial work and household chores at the same time. This demeans the definition of being a woman thus concluding that gender inequality is still relevant in today’s society. With the current economic recession and inflation on the rise, the rising cost of living is beginning to take a toll on families. Stress is placed on the sole breadwinner of the family, that being the head male of the house, to earn a better income to provide for his growing family. Again, a woman has to be able to hold the family together to make sure that the family doesn’t fall apart. This means that no time is given for women to excel in their jobs, which then adds on to the fact that women cannot be the sole breadwinners. As mentioned earlier, women are constantly being lauded for being able to cook well and at the same time, keep the house spic and span. Adding on to that, the widespread fact that women belong at home, especially in the kitchen, is being constantly portrayed in popular movies, websites and books, available for everyone to see. However, in an egalitarian’s defense, gender inequality has greatly shown signs of improvement. For example, gender quotas have been placed in some top parliaments with great female representations. These quotas ensure that some seats in the parliament should be reserved for females. In India, for example, females must occupy 33.1% of the seats in the parliament while the remaining 66.9% are reserved for males. Some governments are also extremely supportive of the idea of gender equality to such an extent that at least a female must occupy 1 in 3 top parliamentary positions. Overall, we can see that even though gender inequality is slowly improving, it has not reached the extent that it has become totally non-existent, as it is still evidently relevant in today’s society. It is still prevailing amongst the majority of the world. Though gender inequality still exists in today’s society, we can see that it is taking a turn for the better. With Forbes Magazine dubbing Oprah Winfrey the most powerful and influential woman, Aung San Suu Kyi winning the Nobel Peace Prize, and both Hilary Clinton and Sarah Palin running for President of the United States of America in 2008, we can clearly see that the common stereotype that women are not as strong as physically and mentally as strong as men is slowly fading. Hopefully in the near future, we will be able to see both genders treated more equally.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

The Genius of Julius Caesar

The Genius of Julius Caesar Free Online Research Papers In terms of political and military genius, surely none can compare to the brilliance of Gaius Julius Caesar. With glowing political ambition and the military genius needed to see it realised, Caesar revolutionalised the Roman republic through his ability to manipulate the Cursus Honorum, his formation and manipulation of the First Triumvirate and his triumphant military conquests in Gaul; partially attributed to his inspirational leadership. All these successes lead to the conclusion that Gaius Julius Caesar truly was, to a large extent, a political and military genius. Born into a traditional, though not wealthy, Patrician family, Caesar was influenced to achieve political success from a young age. On the one side, his family had not seen success for generations; his father making only Praetor. This gave Caesar some political guidance while filling him with ambition to succeed for family honour. On the other side however, he was related by law to Marius. Marius held consular position six years in a row and was involved in civil war with Sulla. This influence gave Caesar the thought of using illegal force to achieve his ends, and the knowledge that political success could be achieved through military accomplishments. Both these influences were to guide him in his future military and political successes. Julius Caesar showed he was able to achieve political success from a young age. At nineteen, he openly defied Sulla, refusing to divorce his wife. This was so abrasive it caused Sulla himself to comment â€Å"There are many Marius’ in this fellow Caesar† (Suetonius, 1979, p.1). Caesar showed he had the characteristics to succeed from the moment he enrolled in the army, aged twenty. His military brilliance was such that he was awarded the civic crown, the highest honour granted to a soldier. On the way to Rhodes, he was captured by pirates. It was here his exceptional abilities were first shown. Not in the least intimidated, Caesar according to Suetonius â€Å"†¦had often smilingly sworn, while still in their power, that he would soon capture and crucify them; and that is exactly what he did† (Suetonius, 1979. p.15). This act was unprecedented for a private citizen, and showed his ability to use initiative and force to gain or enforce power. It also showed he had the determination, ambition and arrogance needed to achieve political and military glory. His political genius can be easily recognised through his exploitation of the Cursus Honorum. Caesar used each position he held intelligently to further his popularity, which he correctly saw as the key to a successful political career. When elected as Quaesitor in 63BC, he went to the Po River and gained clientela by exploiting the discontent felt there due to lack of citizenship. In 65BC, when elected as Aedile, he held lavish games and amazing displays to please the crowd, spending money ‘recklessly’. He realised that huge debts could be cleared as his power grew, but he needed popularity with the people to gain power. This popularity led to his election as Pro-Praetor in 61BC. In this office he held campaigns in Spain, where he had military successes which cleared his debts, and gave him the military reputation needed to achieve further political power. It is obvious to conclude that such brilliant exploitation of each of his offices in the Cursus Honorum places him under the umbrella of ‘political genius’. His most influential, if not clever, political endeavour was his formation and manipulation of the First Triumvirate. To reach consular position and further his political career, Caesar needed to make powerful and carefully planned alliances. He approached Pompey and Crassus, two of the most powerful men in Rome. Together they held influence over the entire state. Plutarch comments: â€Å"A city, like a ship, can gain stability from opposed forces, which together prevent it from rocking one way or another; but now these forces were united into one and there was nothing to stop its movement of violent part interest from overthrowing everything† (Plutarch, 1974, p.206). While Pompey and Crassus had thought only of the short term benefits, Caesar had carefully considered this alliance, and how he could manipulate it, for his long term personal gain. Through the triumvirate he had himself elected as consul. He then had his two greatest political adversaries, Cato and Cicero, removed from Rome. To do this he had a tribune elected through the power of the Triumvirate, who then had Cicero exiled and Cato sent to Crete as provincial governor. He then further used their powers to be given, at the conclusion of his consulship, a decent province, which the Senate was attempting to thwart. Caesar was aware that a good province would be necessary if he was to achieve military greatness, and thus extend his political career. Throughout his Pro-Consulship he used the Triumvirate to look after his interests back in Rome. Clearly, the insight and subtle cleverness in the formation and manipulation of the First Triumvirate adds weight to the claim of ‘politic al genius.’ His campaigns in Gaul are where his true military genius can be clearly seen. In Gaul, Caesar accomplished three great military feats. Firstly, he bridged the Rhine River. This proved to his German opposition that he was capable of anything, and greatly increased his armies’ mobility. Such a technological feat was unprecedented. Secondly, Caesar attacked Briton. This caused excitement in Rome as no Roman had ever had ever raided that far north before. The prestige and reputation Caesar gained was far more valuable then the monetary funds plundered. Florus believes â€Å"Caesar was satisfied with what he had done – he was after all only out to acquire a reputation, not a province†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Williams, 1996, p.187). This shows how Caesar cleverly used his military feats to extend his political career. Thirdly, he produced the greatest siege ever attempted. Caesar had the Gaulish army, united under Vercingtorix, surrounded on an unassailable hill in Alesia. Aware that reinforcements were marching behind him, Caesar, in a stroke of brilliance, built two Forts, to protect himself in front and behind. To do this he had two trenches dug on both sides, one filled with water. He then had an array of spikes, holes, stakes and obstacles implemented in front of them to impede the armies further. At the conclusion of a dirty battle, Caesar was victor, having defeated two armies who together outnumbered him five men to one. The incredible reputation that these events gained for Caesar, as well as the money and land that Caesar gained personally and for the state, proves without a doubt that Caesar planned every event to impress and to contribute to his political career. These events proved that Caesar was undoubtedly a military genius. His military genius extends further, to his brilliance as a general. His successes in battle are largely a result of his men’s loyalty and adoration of him. Plutarch voices the opinion that â€Å"His ability to secure the affection of his men, and to get the best out of them was remarkable†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Plutarch, p. 59). His brilliance as a leader further backs the title of ‘military genius’. In conclusion, such deep insight into the exploitation of each political position he held, such thought and cleverness in the formation and manipulation of the First Triumvirate, his stunning military exploits in Gaul and brilliance as a leader seamlessly portray a man who can be, to a large extent, described as a ‘political and military genius’. If ever a man lived who was deserved of so prestigious a title, Gaius Julius Caesar would be that man. Research Papers on The Genius of Julius CaesarAppeasement Policy Towards the Outbreak of World War 2Quebec and CanadaBringing Democracy to AfricaAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropePETSTEL analysis of India19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationWhere Wild and West MeetCanaanite Influence on the Early Israelite Religion

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Soil Enzyme Activity Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Soil Enzyme Activity - Lab Report Example Results show that combined fertilizer had the highest enzyme activity of 1.493 followed by organic fertilizer (1.148), inorganic fertilizer (0.529) and unammended (0.459) soil sample in that order. Combination of inorganic fertilizer and organic fertilizer provides efficient environment for the growth of soil bacteria hence production of more alkaline phosphatase enzymes thus resulting into high enzyme activity. These findings shows how an integrated fertilizer regime play an important role in altering the structure of the soil microbial composition, stimulates microbial growth and increases enzyme activity as compared to the inorganic fertilizer. Microorganisms play a vital role in biochemical transformation important for nutrient cycling in soils. The microorganisms in the soil are capable of breaking down insoluble nutrient sources in the soil and in the process produce extracellular enzymes. Extracellular enzymes are biochemical catalysts, protein compounds produced within the bacterial cell and exported out into the soil solution. While outside the cells, enzymes catalyze reactions that break down the structure of nutrient source in order to make it more accessible to the plants. The quantities of extracellular enzymes are therefore dependent on substrate concentration, soil microorganisms’ metabolic ability, soil environmental conditions such as temperature and pH and the number of microorganisms present in the soil (Lichtfouse, 228). Alkaline Phosphatase is an example of extracellular enzyme produced by many soil microorganisms and exported out into the soil solution. The main function is to eliminate the phosphate molecule from the organic compounds such as nucleic acids and phospholipids.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

How the Trans Alaska Pipeline Affected the Lives of the Alaskan Essay

How the Trans Alaska Pipeline Affected the Lives of the Alaskan Nativesand the company itself - Essay Example The single 48-inch (1.22 m) diameter pipeline was built between March 27, 1975 and May 31, 1977 at a cost of around US$8 billion. Five different contractors employing 21,000 people at the peak of work constructed the pipe in six sections; 31 were killed in accidents during construction (Trans Alaska Pipeline). during the course of the project (qtd. from Cowans). The obstacles faced and overcome in building the trans-Alaska pipeline are simply astounding. The harsh temperatures, rough terrain, lack of Arctic pipeline building knowledge at this time and the environmental concerns of a pipeline had to all be considered in making this project a success. In 1994, the American Society of Civil Engineers named the Alaska pipeline one of the "Seven Wonders of the United States". Their list includes the Panama Canal, Golden Gate Bridge, Hoover Dam, the Kennedy Space Center, the Interstate Highway System, and the World Trade Center (qtd. from Cowans). Along the pipeline, there are eleven pump stations, each with four pumps. Diesel or natural gas generators power each electric pump. Twelve pump stations were planned but Pump Station 11 was never built, though the southward numbering system for the pump stations retains a place for this nonexistent station. Usually only around seven stations are active at one time, and plans to replace the existing pumps with newer high-efficiency pumps may reduce the number of active stations even further (qtd. from Trans Alaska Pipeline). In areas where thaw-sensitive permafrost exists but the line must be buried, such as highway crossings or avalanche-prone areas, the pipe is encased in an insulated, refrigerated ditch. Nearby refrigeration, plants pump cold brine through 6-inch (15 cm) pipes, which absorb heat and keep the soil cooled. Other areas of burial are either conventional covered ditches or unrefrigerated but insulated ditches, depending on the sensitivity of the surrounding soil (qtd. from Trans Alaska Pipeline). The pipeline was completed on June 20, 1977 and the first oil was pumped into the pipeline. On July 8, 1977, a huge explosion destroyed Pump Station Eight. The explosion killed one worker and injured five more. Human error was attributed to the cause of the explosion. On July 19, 1977, a loader damaged a valve just south of Prudhoe Bay. Approximately 2,000 barrels of oil spilled onto the ground before the leak was stopped and repaired. On the next day, the first attempt of sabotage occurred. A section of insulation from the pipeline was torn off and supporting pipe brackets were torn from the line just north of Fairbanks. The pipeline itself was not injured and the oil continued to flow south towards Valdez. Several people were later arrested and convicted for malicious destruction of property (qtd.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Individual Assignment 1 Implementation of the Porters Five Forces Research Paper

Individual Assignment 1 Implementation of the Porters Five Forces Model - Research Paper Example Despite of this, yet there are minute chances for them to differentiate the way they do businesses. The framework of Professor Michael Porter is widely used to analyze the attractiveness of an industry as well as its competitive positions. Porter’s five forces model is applicable to banking industry to a great extent (Hill 2008). Five forces that are used in this model are: Threat of new entrants refers to the number of entrants that cause an increase in the number of players performing similar activities and serving a similar market. In banking industry, an average person cannot start up his own bank therefore there is low threat of new entrants due to variety of forces that discourages the new players. Main threat to enter in a banking industry is the requirement of large capital investment. This obligation doesn’t permit every other person to enter into this industry and only entrepreneurs can commence business in this sector. Running a bank needs specialized knowledge and expertise regarding this area which can not be possessed by every other person. The complexities of this sector can only be understood by someone who has lifetime experience of working in this area. Owners who have life time experience of working in banking sector and deals with the complications with sharpness are observed to achieve greatest success in this area. Not every other person is able to take such huge responsibility. There can be threat of new entrants for banking sector when other financial institutions start offering the services which are being offered by conventional banking systems. What if insurance companies start offering loan and mortgage services? That can be a threat for banking sector. Substitutes tend to steal the market share and intensify the competition. In banking sector, there are plenty of substitutes as one can probably imagine. Every banking suite is offering similar products and services. At the lending side of industry, there are

Friday, November 15, 2019

Etiology of Substance Abuse

Etiology of Substance Abuse â€Å"Drugs are a bet with your mind.† (Jim Morrison). People start taking drugs by their own choice. In early stages they feel stress-free and euphoric but as life goes on they start getting dependent on it and face difficulty to depart it from their lives. A true feelings and perceptions which abuser has for them are â€Å"I am sick and tired of being known as an addict.† (Arun et al.2004). To live with these perceptions are challenging but to abandon drugs is even more challenging for them. According to (DSM-IV), â€Å"Substance use disorders are now defined as maladaptive patterns of substance use leading to inability to control, use despite significant consequences†. According to National Institute of Drug Abuse (2014), Substance abuse has a lot of effects on society and cause deaths. Use of substance abuse in adolescent, adults and elderly people is creating problem to fulfill their responsibilities and its consequence are very much destructive. According to Annual prevalence of drug use in Pakistan (2012) as cited in UNODC (2013), an expected 5.8 percent of the people in Pakistan utilized illicit substances in the previous 12 months. 11 % of substance utilization was present in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 6.5 % of substances used in Sindh and 8.5 % of illicit substances used in Punjab. Substance abuse is referred as terrible deed as it violets societal standards and values by accelerating savage acts. This topic has a huge impact on individual lives, socioeconomic status, health care system and their psychology. Moreover in my clinical rotation, I encounter 25 years old lady being hospitalized for attempt to suicide. During our discussion, she confesse s that her husband is a substance abuser since 2 years and despite the fact she was pregnant, her husband beats him so badly that her baby abort. As this incident touches my heart which endorse me to write about this topic. This paper would profit the readers in a manner especially to those individuals who are indulge in substance abuse so they will know what elements cause substance abuse and how its perilous impacts effects on their lives. It will also talk about, what therapies individuals can approach to depart illicit substances from their lives. Some individuals are at higher risk of substance enslavement. No single variable can anticipate dependence on substance abuse. According to the recent Drug Use in Pakistan Technical Summary Report (2013), â€Å"an estimated 6 ·45 million (5 ·8%) people aged15–64 years in Pakistan used plant-based or synthetic drugs, or prescription drugs for non-medical purposes in the past 12 months†. (pp.2153). Alternately, there are a few causes that make an individual more inclined to it. The etiology of substance abuse in youth is divided into three classes i.e. Familial, Social, and Individual. Familial factors include childhood mal-treatment in which children could have physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect by parents so they grope dismissed and end into substance abusive behavior. According to Whitesell et al. (2013), â€Å"29% of children who experienced maltreatment participating in some level of substance†. (p.3). Additionally if any family member is abusin g drugs in front of child so they imitate same behavior as they perceive parents their role model. Research shown that parental substance abuse increases genetic predisposition for substance use disorder (Dunn et al. 2002). In my opinion parental training plays an essential part in guiding child about substance abuse matters and lack of education can incline a child for substance abuse. Other factors are marital status of parents, child perception that parents approve of their substance use. (Whitesell et al, 2013). Social elements that may include deviant peer relationship in which adolescence joins those gatherings who uses illicit substances. Teenagers who experience childhood in unsteady community conditions are really less vulnerable to deviant peer relationship. (Whitesell et al, 2013). In my opinion individuals affiliate themselves with distinctive gatherings and they imagine that utilizing substances make them popular. Research also supports that youths who classify themselves as famous have indicated to have expanded predominance of substance utilization when contrasted with those who dont recognize themselves† (Whitesell et al, 2013). According to Taylor et al. (2009), bulling is related to substance abuse behavior. 12 % individuals who suffered from bulling experienced life time use of alcohol. (Taylor et al, 2009). There are many individual factors that end up in substance abuse. One of them is depression; it encompasses feelings of sadness, pain, despair, or anger. In my opini on people use to abuse substances to cope from depression but it is also as vice versa because after usage of drugs depression cans occur. According to shafiq et al. (2006), In Pakistan 65% can lead depression I have seen many people in my community who are using illicit drugs because they feel that drugs can alleviate their stressful feelings. Transition of individual from adolescence to young, middle and older adult hood has increases burden in everyday life. Life stressors like financial burden, loss of job and poverty may trigger the use of illicit substances. According to Drug Abuse Master Plan (2010-2014), â€Å"In Pakistan 32 % of the opioid users were unemployed in the past six months† (p.7). People with mental problems also suffered from substance abuse problems. Research suggests that about 50 % of the individuals with psychiatric issues likewise experience the substance abuse problem. (chrome et al., 2009). Substance abuse has a lot of devasting impacts on abusers lives. They can be divided in to three domains i.e. physically, socially and psychologically. Physical impacts are, as abusers use syringes for administration of drugs and due to lack of syringes they apply contaminated syringes on each other which make them vulnerable to blood borne diseases like HIV and hepatitis C. As study also supported that, In Pakistan73% people uses same syringes as there more syringes are not available. (UNODC, 2013). High risk sexual behaviors are observed among drug abusers i.e. un- protected sex which leads to further sexually transmitted disease i.e. In Pakistan â€Å"36% reported having sex with those clients who are HIV positive†. (UNODC, 2013). As drugs impact our central nervous system so it causes different psychological impacts like anxiety in which people have feeling of uneasiness and disturbance in sleep is also common. Substance abuser can suffer from different mood disorders like bipolar disorder. According to moal et al. (2007), Study has revealed that more or less 35% of addicts met lifetime criteria for a mood issue and 45% for an anxiety issue. Substance abuser also suffers from aggression. (Moal et al. 2007). There are many social impacts of substance abuse. In my opinion Isolation can be one of them and on the other hand, absence of acknowledgement from society additionally makes them evade social collaborations. As I have observe in my community that couples fighting is very common and it can further cause separation. Usually people indulge themselves in so much addicted behaviors so they lose their jobs and financial burden increases. According to Angres et al. (2008), Substance abuse negatively impacts public safety, reduces workers, productivity, and contributes to higher healthcare costs, premature deaths, and disability. (pp.696).Abusers have risky behaviors which also detoriate their health. Prendergast (2009) affirms that substance abusers are involved in different criminal acts. Generally individuals crave for drugs and to satisfy their need they involved in criminal acts like robbery so they can purchase their drugs. Leisure et al, (2007) affirms that drug abusers are usually involve in gambling which increases financial burden. In substance abuse relapse is commonest among individuals. According to yaqub (2013), â€Å"Studies have revealed that the relapse rate in Pakistan is around 90%†. In theory brain reward mechanism in which addictive substances trigger brain reward circuit which in turn initiate certain behaviors. The effects of these abusive drugs on mesolimbic dopaminergic system are very serious and associated with creating rewarding effects. If this system does not work properly so it may create certain addictive properties. Dopamine expands extracellular; focus overriding the control of motivated and objective regulated behavior, which motivates them to take drugs. Certain medications are known to alter dopamine discharge and reuptake which modify reward system and increases uptake and relapse. (Eps et al. 2012). The congnitive behavior model of relapse tells about the high risk situations in which person is prone to have relapsed. He describe eight categories like how person interact with different people (â€Å"affect, coping, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies†) and certain environmental factors like (â€Å"asses to drugs, cue exposure and society influence†). It depend on individual that how he cope with these situations and it depend on him whether he uses substances or not. If individual decided and involve in substance abuse so they may suffer from AVE (Abstinence violation effect). AVE includes two things one affective response, in which person feels embarrassed and disgrace because he thinks he is responsible for this and second is cognitive domain which is based on attributional therapy, in which person perceived that this lapse is due to my personal factor and I cannot control them so he may have greater chances of relapse and if he thinks that it happens because of external factor and I can control it so relapse chances are deceased. (Marlatt and Witkiewitz, 2007). On my clinical I have encounter patient 15 years old with relapse of substance abuse. He verbalized me that he had left substance abuse for 3 months but because it was easily available and my friends influenced him so he took drugs and end up in relapse. If we related it to cognitive therapy of relapse environmental factors influence him to end up in relapse which created feeling of guilt and embarrassment It is recommended that government should arrange certain awareness programs on substance abuse. Not only have that media played vital role in substances promotion so government should band those advertisement. Government should create certain institutions and build certain rehabilitation centers in community which are in reasonable cost. More over certain therapies can help patient to quit substance abuse .These therapies are : In Motivational enhancement therapy, counseling approach is used and attempts to modify the behavior of substance abusers. MET is derived from Trans theoretical Model of Change. In this model counselor tend to change person behavior by five levels. In first level of Precontemplation individual does not consider his/her behavior problematic and don’t try to change it. In level two Contemplation people consider his challenging and think to modify it. In third level Preparation, person in this stage plans for a particular change. They assess and select measures for behavioral change. Another level is Action; in which individual is modify his behavior. The last level is maintenance in which individual try to maintain his new behavior and try to adjust new behavior in his surroundings. (Prochaska et al, 1992). Contingency Management Therapies is based on operant conditioning which was proposed by skinners in which desire behavior is achieved by reward and punishment. The positive behavior which have given reward will be more likely to repeat for example when client has positive behavior so we can provide different gifts and voucher and if undesirable behavior exist so punishment should be there. (Carroll onken, 2005). Moreover with therapies we can likewise provide certain interventions. Substance abuse is a problem which cant drive away instantly and it requires significant time for individual to recuperate from it. At community level we can take some measures to prevent substance abuse. According to National Institute of Drug Abuse, you have to develop a community plan in which the first step is â€Å"Assessment†. In assessment we will identify the population who are abusers and who are at risk for becoming abusers like people with low- economic status. In second step is â€Å"Build† we will try to identify resources for example we need for different awareness programs in community. Than third we will build â€Å"Short term goals† than after achieving short term goals we will run projects and simultaneously observe efficacy of preventive plan. According to National Institute of Drug Abuse affirms that Family-based preventive projects ought to strong family attachment and con nections examining and uses different family approaches to alleviate on substance abuse. In conclusion substance abuse is tremendously common issue among individuals. There are numerous reasons which are responsible for substance abuses in youth are familial, social and individual factors. As Age progresses, the risk of consumption of substances in adults also increases. The reasons behind substance abuse in adults are unemployment, poverty, traumatic events and any psychiatric problem. Substance abuse has a considerable amount of negative impacts physically, socially and psychologically. Even after treatment, some individuals again end up with state of relapse. Cognitive behavior therapy of relapse tells us about the risk factors that lead relapse. Some more therapies like motivational enhancement therapy and contingency Management Therapies help us to modify behavior of substance abusers. In my opinion we can develop insight in abusers and can modify their behavior. I would like to end up with quotation â€Å"Addiction should never be treated as a crime. It has to be treated as a health problem†. (Ralph Nader).

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Shakespeares The Tempest - Is Prospero Good or Evil? :: Shakespeare Tempest

Tempest:   Is Prospero Good or Evil?  Ã‚      To be able to answer this question we must first understand why Prospero can be seen as good or evil. It is fair to say that Prospero is a main protagonist to the plot of Shakespeare’s Tempest. It is due to Prospero's role as a key figure in the play that has put him under so much scrutiny. Many different Shakespearean critics have their own view of Prospero and those that read or see the play also have their own opinion of the way in which Prospero may be seen. To be able to support either argument there must be evidence that backs-up each of the analysis of Prospero's character and why he is seen in such a way. Having been usurped and wrecked on an Island Prospero and his young daughter Miranda have to settle. It is here in Prospero's past that it first clear to see where any confusion about his character may appear. As a learned and powerful man Prospero is able to take direct control of the island, he frees a trapped and tortured spirit (Ariel) and befriends the inhabitants (Caliban). Prospero 'helps' Caliban, he tries to educate him and teaches him to communicate, in exchange Caliban helps Prospero to survive on the Island. But in taking power of the Island Prospero is committing the same act that happened to him as Duke of Milan, now Prospero himself has become the usurper. In this act of goodness Prospero has unknowingly shown his evil side. Prospero having been trapped on the Island with his daughter has bring her up alone. He tries to do this in as fair a way as he sees possible teaching her right from wrong and educating her in the ways of the world, however Prospero does not inform Miranda of their past until Miranda, he feels is old enough to understand. 'Thy father was Duke of Milan and a Prince of power' (A1 Sc2 Ln57) But with Prospero informing Miranda of this at such a late stage in her life is this Prospero as a control freak only allowing his daughter Miranda to know the truth when he feels it is time or is it Prospero being caring keeping this information from Miranda until she is of an age when she can fully understand who she is and where she came from?, again it is not clear to see if Prospero's intentions are for his own good or the good of his daughter.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

An Element of Art and Science Essay

Astrology provides a very debatable kind of knowledge that is generally assessed by the intelligent as a useless kind of knowledge, which only makes sense for the ignorant. At the same time astrology is usually associated with gypsies and hucksters, who are known for their deceptive and fake knowledge, as they try to deceive people for their own financial interest. On the other hand, we find people with high education attempting to study astrology and very much respect the kind of knowledge it offers them. Whether such knowledge offered through teaching astrology in universities is worth doing or to be considered an inapplicable knowledge for high education is a critical decision to make, which requires obtaining a great insight about astrology it self as an academic field in order to be able to make a correct assessment. Astrology is actually a combined form of knowledge that both combine both the element of art and of science in its essence. It contains the mathematical element as well as the artistic element o symbolism (â€Å"Astrology? â€Å"891). Scientists usually disregard the art side of astrology and focus on the basic mathematical part of it, as they judge it as useless and insignificant. This actually destroys the wholeness and balance within the realm itself. This may be considered a reason for misunderstanding the real value of knowledge in astrology. It is also a fact that every field is vulnerable to be used by ignorant people who devoid it totally of its meaning and value, in order to sell it as cheap as possible in a market of ignorance that unfortunately have many customers who are wiling to buy, again this helps in misunderstanding Astrology (â€Å"Astrology? † 891); and as there is the presence of the competent and the incompetent in every field, and people usually search for the best in every profession, so why exclude Astrology (â€Å"Astrology? † 896). Astrology requires a sophisticated kind of thinking as it combines artistic and scientific knowledge, it can therefore never be considered as insignificant knowledge. It may not be appreciated by scientists due to the artistic element provided within it, and their total dependence on reason for discovering reality since the onset of the renaissance; thus reviving such forms of knowledge actually, shows the evolution of knowledge and thinking that reflects the significance of intuitive forms of knowledge besides the pure rational ones. The astrological knowledge in itself consists of a natural balance between intuitive and rational knowledge, and disturbing this balance will only lead to the production of inconsistent forms of knowledge that seem to appear on the surface to help in the generation of misunderstandings regarding astrology. The argument of scientists against Astrology reflects the on going disagreement between scientific knowledge and intuitive forms of knowledge. Scientists never admit the truth in any intuitive understanding, and they usually regarded as invalid. They never accept the fact the mystery is part of reality and that the rational mind can never be able to reach full understanding of the universe. Astrology is a balanced kind of knowledge as it respects both forms of thinking, which in fact a respect for nature and for the human being as part of that nature. I feel that the purpose of a reading is to understand one’s life challenges And potential, to provide an opportunity for self reflection and life Evaluation, as well as to confirm one’s intuitive sense of what one’s Life is about (â€Å"Astrology? † 895). Human beings as well as nature are made of matter and soul that can never be detached from each other as long as life is there. How can scientists reach the truth if they are actually altering the natural balance in life by looking for material proof and ignoring the intuitive reality of nature? The soul remains a mystery that can never be explained by scientific truth, and science can not resolve the question of life and death. There fore, accepting astrology as a significant form of knowledge by a scientist is truly a question of him admitting intuition as a part of reality. From another side, if the issue had not been on intuition, regarding astrology, it is still a form of knowledge that surely provides the individual with some insight about life and introduces him to different kinds of thinking; it should be even credited for this reason alone, â€Å"my studies in Astrology, as well as in other fields, are attempts to understand the grand design of the whole† (â€Å"Astrology? † 894). Scientists also accuse Astrological interpretive knowledge of not being exact â€Å"stars incline but do not compel† (â€Å"A critical? † 882), and this fact works against scientific logic which is sharp and determinant. But actually, life in it self is never exact or straight forward and clear as mathematical knowledge entails for instance. Astrology may actually provide the best for of understanding of life and nature; it allows people to understand reality the way it is without trying to alter its nature. The whole issue of prediction and future related knowledge can never be definite or fully explainable, â€Å"to discuss future probabilities is much like giving a weather report† (â€Å"Astrology? † 896). On the other hand, it should be admitted that Astrological knowledge may help in creating dependent and weak individuals, if they used it wrongly. It might lead them to spin in a cycle, which they might not be able to break. People can stress too much on the intuitive knowledge in Astrology and thus once again altering its balance of logic and intuition and thus getting again a wrong insight about life and nature, with an accompanied change in personality and attitude to life â€Å"Astrology, when practiced as completely as possible, takes away from ach of us our right and duty to make our own personal decisions† (A Critical? † 882). In the case of a scientist who puts great emphasis on logic and excludes intuition, makes him a rough and rigid person who stands weak in front of the scientifically unexplained mysteries of the world; while in the case of the ignorant who does the opposite to give too much significance to intuition and disregards reason suffers another kind of weakness that creates a dependent and shattered personality. But again we must also admit that this would be the case with any field if wrongly interpreted. All in all, I believe that Astrology is a sophisticated form of knowledge that should be respected for the special thinking abilities it provides an individual who studies it. It also reflects on the importance of providing a balance between Art and Science, and thus between logic and intuition, which is found deep within the nature of man and the universe he lives in. I would very strongly recommend all institutions of high education to teach Astrology in order to correct the misunderstanding entitled to it, and thus expose the rich and deep knowledge it provides. Works Cited Bok, Bart J. â€Å"A Critical Look at Astrology. † The Humanist Costello, Priscilla. â€Å"Astrology, Science or Abracadabra? † Wellesley College.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Perils of Hope - Analysis

Perils of Hope - Analysis Analysis of "Peril of Hope" The poem "Peril of Hope," by Robert Frost is about having hope. The poem speaks about no matter how things are one minute they can always change. Hope, however, is constantly there and will always be there to help get through the tough times until things get better.Imagery is used throughout this poem to help describe the extent of the boundaries of hope. Hope has endless boundaries in this poem it goes from one extreme to the next. In the first stanza (lines1-4), the poet describes a late fall scene just before winter when all the leaves have already fallen off of the trees. But in the same stanza, he also depicts a beautiful spring day just after all the leaves have come out before all the blossoms appear on the orchard trees. Frost does this to show the extremes in which hope can be found.Hope

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

holiday essays

holiday essays Billie Holiday was born April 7th, 1915, in Baltimore. Her original name was Eleanora Fagan. Although her father, Clarence Holiday, was a guitar/banjo player in Fletcher Hendersons band, she didnt break into the music world until her late teens. After being signed by Columbia Records John Hammond in 1933 for her debut record. Holiday went on to work with Teddy Wilson, Buck Clayton and Lester Young, who gave her the nickname Lady Day. He also toured the with the Count Basie Orchestra in 1937 and Artie Shaw in 1938. Billie Holiday was a victim of childhood rape and became a prostitute by her early teen years. It was her voice that saved her from such a life. After recording her first songs with Benny Goodman In1933, Billie realized that she could avoid a life of prostitution by singing although at times she said it scared her to death. Despite never receiving any formal training, Holidays unique singing technique and trademark white gardenias elevated her well above other jazz singers of her day. Lady Day, as she came to be known, also fought racial discrimination throughout her career. Billie signed with Louis Armstrongs manager, Joe Glaser, in 1935 and turned into a solo act in 1939. Although she enjoyed this spotlight, who wouldnt, she couldnt developed a dependence on heroin, a drinking problem, and a growing need for attention form men. Some think she searched for a father figure, and as she looked for a dominant male figure she was also aiming to satisfy her sexual appetite. Billie began to depend on these men who preyed on her for her beauty as well as fame. As her fame grew, her lifestyle began to influence began to affect her talent. In 1947 she was arrested for drugs, however this gave her huge publicity, and this new-found attention it brought to her enabled her to play a packed house at Carnegie Hall. ...

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Giving adice to another student how well to do on test,why it is Essay

Giving adice to another student how well to do on test,why it is important it is to do well - Essay Example First of all, I advise that you study your lessons first thing, early in the morning while your mind is well rested and free from any worries. This will allow you to easily grasp information and remember them because your brain is not yet worked up. Moreover, the silence in the early morning allows your mind to work more efficiently without the disturbances or distractions noise and other things could bring. Secondly, it would be most helpful if you plan what you study starting from what is most difficult for you. Subjects you are having difficulty with requires more efforts to understand than those you usually enjoy so while your brain is still freshly rejuvenated, take the chance of devouring and understanding information which are difficult. Lastly, study your own notes because it is easier to remember things that you have written yourself. Of this demands that you take notes during lectures and that you have to listen well so you know the important information you need to jot

Friday, November 1, 2019

Modern Methods of Construction in Housing Dissertation

Modern Methods of Construction in Housing - Dissertation Example After the World War I and II, the demand of prefabricated housing came to its peak. Moreover, in 1960s this demand also got speedy turn during the time period of the clearance process of slum areas. In 20th century, about one million prefabricated houses were constructed. However, many among these were designed as temporary. There were many drawbacks in these houses and they did not receive positive feedback and attitudes from people. Initially, issues arose over the quality of material used in building process. Beside those, the workmanship was also very poor. However, these houses have continued to be used in UK for hotels, hospitals and schools as well as for residence and housing purposes in many other countries. As far as modern methods of construction MMC is related, it is quite a new term that reflects technical and scientific improvements regarding prefabrication. This method of construction includes a wide range of methods that are used on and off sites time to time. Modern methods of construction in housing focus on the modern and innovative methods, building products and construction systems. This modern and more advanced methodology are incorporated in construction process through various techniques. For example, steel framing, timber framing, insulated concrete forms, structured insulated panel system, decent and affordable housing, sustainable buildings and drainage system in urban areas etc. The basic objectives behind modern method of construction involve the promotion of better quality designs. ... Moreover, in 1960s this demand also got speedy turn during the time period of the clearance process of slum areas. In 20th century, about one million prefabricated houses were constructed. However, many among these were designed as temporary. There were many drawbacks in these houses and they did not receive positive feedback and attitudes from people. Initially, issues arose over the quality of material used in building process. Beside those, the workmanship was also very poor. However, these houses have continued to be used in UK for hotels, hospitals and schools as well as for residence and housing purposes in many other countries. As far as modern methods of construction MMC is related, it is quite a new term that reflects technical and scientific improvements regarding prefabrication. This method of construction includes a wide range of methods that are used on and off sites time to time. Modern methods of construction in housing focus on the modern and innovative methods, build ing products and construction systems. This modern and more advanced methodology is incorporated in construction process through various techniques. For example, steel framing, timber framing, insulated concrete forms, structured insulated panel system, decent and affordable housing, sustainable buildings and drainage system in urban areas etc. The basic objectives behind modern method of construction involve the promotion of better quality designs and innovative products and ideas within construction process. However, it is a long process that involves the relation and coordination of various activities. Various research and testing organizations, all over the world, are working in this regard. Their approvals connect

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Explanation of how alcohol is metabolised in a human body Essay

Explanation of how alcohol is metabolised in a human body - Essay Example Acetaldehyde is a poison that is related to formaldehyde. The acetyl acid is a component of vinegar and its radical is the combining form of the acid. The acetyl acid radical combines with Coenzyme A in the formation of acetyl-CoA that goes into the Krebs Cycle that acts as the basic powerhouse in the body of a human being. In the Krebs Cycle, the acetyl acid radical is broken down into water and carbon dioxide. The figure below shows how alcohol is metabolized in a human body When metabolizing alcohol, the human body uses three different enzymes to convert alcohol into acetaldehyde. All the three enzymes work in their different ways to strip two hydrogen atoms from the alcohol molecule. This process converts the alcohol molecule into an acetaldehyde molecule. The acetaldehyde is converted to acetyl radical by a different enzyme. The three enzymes include the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1), and catalase enzymes. The three enzymes are found in different parts of the body and handle the hydrogen atoms in different ways. Non-liver tissues, such as the brain metabolize alcohol with Cytochrome and catalase enzymes (Starr, et al., 2008, p. 103). It has been found that some people get intoxicated more than others do, for instance between men and women, East Asians and American Indians, older males, menopausal women and people with liver damage among others. The reason behind this is that women have much lesser alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme in the stomach compared to men. Therefore, women get drunk more than men do when they drink the same amount of alcohol under same conditions. In terms of East Asians and American Indians, they produce ALD2*2 that is less efficient in converting acetaldehyde compared to ALD2. They also have a more efficient alcohol dehydrogenase than any other genetic background. Older males produce less alcohol dehydrogenase and are likely to be more intoxicated than younger men are. Hormone changes in menopausal women make the m become more intoxicated. Therefore, more or less intoxication can be attributed to the production of less or more alcohol dehydrogenase and ALD2*2. This factor is important in traffic accidents because a person may consume a less amount of alcohol but because his body mechanism produces less alcohol dehydrogenase, he or she will become drunk and likely cause an accident. This applies similarly to people who produce ALD2*2 that is less effective in breaking down acetaldehyde. The Breathalyzer is used in measuring the amount of alcohol found in a person’s breath. A Breathalyzer works works in a similar manner to the diabetic testing strips or pool testing kits. It contains a collection gadget; that is, a straw that is attached to a cylinder. The cylinder has two vials that have a solution of potassium dichromate, silver nitrate, sulfuric acid and water. The person being tested blows air into the straw for about 2 to 4 seconds. The air goes through the vials where the silver n itrate will act as a catalyst to initiate and fasten the process. The sulfuric acid eliminates the alcohol from the air and produces the acidic condition that enables the next process to go on. The alcohol is then absorbed into the liquid solution where the potassium dichromate breaks it down into chromium sulfate, acetic acid, water and potassium sulfate. This process causes a color change. The chromium ion is green while the dichromate ion is reddish orange. The color change reflects the amount of alc