Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Factors Influencing the Use of Presidential Veto Essay The democratic system of government relies mainly upon the proper functioning and the harmonious relationship between its three main branches: The Executive Department which has the power to execute the law; b) the Legislative Branch which has the power to propose, enact, amend and repeal the law; c) the Judiciary which has the power to interpret the law. Our constitution has divided these three most important functions to these three departments which are considered co-equal and supreme authority within their own domain. The principle of separation of powers has for its aim the prevention of the over concentration of authority in one person or group of persons that might lead to an error or abuse to the prejudice of the whole state. The idea is that the separation of power will produce greater action on the part of these three departments, prevent any of these three departments from over-extending their authority to the point of encroaching into the domains of the other department, to prevent the possibility of abuse by any department in the exercise of its power and to obtain maximum efficiency in the delivery of public service. Austin Ranney (1995) once said that any concentration of powers in a single branch is tyrannical and only true separation of powers will protect the liberties of the people against the aggressions of government. (Austin Ranney, p. 240) Checks and Balances The US Constitution has provided for the principle known as the checks and balances. Under this principle, the constitution has given each department certain powers by which it may restrain the other department from improvident action. This enables the whole state to maintain the right balance among them and preserve the will of the sovereign as expressed in the constitution. Thus, pursuant to the principle of Checks and Balances, one department is allowed to resist encroachments made by one department against another or to rectify mistakes and errors committed by the other department. The principle of separation of powers should not however be interpreted to mean that there is a sibling rivalry of some sort in the exercise of the powers of these departments. The fact remains that even if one department may control, interfere with or encroach upon the acts done by another department pursuant to the constitution, it is still the policy that each department have to interact with one another to achieve a unity of purpose. There is therefore no wall of isolation or animosity among the three departments. Blending of Powers Corollary to the principle of separation of powers and the checks and balances is the principle of blending of powers which is very evident in the manner every democratic government runs. In the performance of a constitutional task, one department acts in a manner complimentary to or supplementary to the other. The principles of separation of powers, checks and balances and blending of powers can be adequately explained in the manner of enactment of laws and statutes. The principle of separation of powers provides that to the legislative belongs the power and authority to enact, amend and repeal a law. To the executive department belongs the power to implement the law. Thus bills are passed by Congress and sent to the President for his approval. The principle of checks and balances is manifested in the way the president vetoes the bills passed by the Congress. The power to veto bills passed by Congress is stated under Article 1 Section 7 of the United States Constitution, to wit: Ã¢â¬Å"Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. (Article 1, Section 7, United States Constitution) Though the Congress enacts the law, the president has the prerogative to reject the law through his exercise of the veto power. In effect, the President, theoretically, can indirectly become a lawmaker by rejecting bills passed by Congress and by proposing to the Congress that certain bills be passed. The same is true for Congress which may greatly influence the exercise of the President of his authority to implement the law. It is clearly stated in the US Constitution that it has the power to override the veto power of the President provided it has the required numbers supporting it, to wit: Ã¢â¬Å"If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law. Ã¢â¬ (Article 1, Sec 7, United States Constitution) In addition, to its power to override presidential veto, Congress may opt to exercise pressure to the president by not confirming certain presidential appointments which the constitution has delegated to the Legislative Branch. In addition, the Congress may also exercise its power to commence and initiate its power of Impeachment. (Gary W. Copeland) In effect, the Congress if it really wants to enact a bill into law may convince the President with the exercise of its power to sign the bills into law. Factors Why the President Veto Legislation There are different views on the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s exercise of his veto power. Some say that the more the president exercises his veto power the more effective leader he is. (Jong R. Lee) The theory is that a president who can influence the Congress is more likely to veto a bill and once vetoed this bill will not be overridden by Congress. This appears to be conclusive considering the following statistics: from the time of Washington to Nixon the veto was used 2,257 times. Out of these, only 75 vetoes or only 6% have been overridden by Congress. On the other hand, some say that the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s exercise of veto is a sign of weakness on his part. The idea here is that if the president really had control and influence over the Congress then they would not have passed these bills that prompted the president to override them in the first place. The veto power is one of the potent weapons which a president may exercise under our democratic system of government. It is even stated that it is the power of the President to veto legislations that make him a dominant American political figure. Copeland) The veto power of the president serves as a check to the power of the Legislative branch to make laws by exercising its veto power. One of the reasons cited for the exercise of the veto powers is because the bill is unconstitutional. The primary function of the President is not to please his political party or to please the electorates. His main responsibility is to protect the constitution and to ensure that the laws are passed i n accordance with the United States Constitution. As its protector, the Constitution has expressly given the president the power to veto bills which are unconstitutional. Thus, several presidents have in the past vetoed bills on the ground of their unconstitutionality. Thus, consider President Andrew Jackson who vetoed bills that seek to extend the charter of the Second Bank of the United States because he insisted the Bank was beyond the power of Congress to create. (Bruce Fein) Aside from the billÃ¢â¬â¢s unconstitutionality, the president has also in the past vetoed bills based on serious ethical and moral grounds. One particular example is HR 810 or the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2006 which authorized the Secretary of State to conduct and support research that utilizes human embryonic cells. This bill was vetoed by the president. (Ã¢â¬Å"Message to the House of RepresentativesÃ¢â¬ ) In his veto message dated July 19, 2006, President George W. Bush states that as though he is in favor of exploring the potentials of the research on stem cell, he however is apprehensive about the ethical repercussions of the said research. Signing this bill will allow the deliberate destruction of human embryos for the purpose of research which is damaging to our nation. In addition, it is widely acknowledged that the past president have used the veto power not merely to protect the constitution. The president has in the past used the veto power not merely as a means for protecting the constitution but also for various political purposes. It bears stressing that not all presidents have the support of the Congress. Several presidents in the past have to contend with a hostile Congress to get the needed legislations they wanted. If the president would not be firm in his response, it is possible that certain important pieces of legislations may not be passed at all. To avoid this from happening some presidents in the past have resorted to the extreme method of vetoing more laws to remind that that he holds the power. Consider the case of Franklin D. Roosevelt who in the past occasionally vetoed a piece of legislation simply to remind Congress that he is still in control (Richard E. Neustadt 1976) Harry Truman and Gerald Ford used the veto power for the purpose of determining differences in Congress to build a political base. (Neudstadt) It is the essence of democracy that the legislative and executive departments though they perform different tasks are co-equal. This may or may not be advantageous for the whole citizenry depending on the condition of the nation. It may happen that the country may experience economic difficulties. During this time, laws must be swiftly passed so that the needs of the people will be addressed more quickly. The ideal reaction would be that the Congress should communicate with the President so that they will have an understanding of what kind of laws need to be passed that can help improve the lives of the people. However, the exact opposite happens during economic difficulties. It is at this point that everybody wants to go grandstanding thinking that it is his best time to point the blame to another politician. It is at this time when every politician wants to be recognized for the littlest things he has done in the past. It is because of this reason that during economic difficulties and hardships there are more bills that are being vetoed by the president. Research has also shown that the president who feels that more voters are in his favor are more likely to use the veto power. The idea here is that the more the president thinks that he has the electorate on his side the more that he will tend to exercise this power to veto legislation. This could be measured by analyzing the results of the election in the past, the higher the votes the president gets the more likely it is that he will exercise this power. The political party who sponsored the bill may also influence the decision of the president whether he will veto it or not. The theory is that the more votes the bill receives from the members of his own party in Congress, the more likely that the president will sign the bill into law. On the other hand, the less votes the bill receives from the members of his own party, the more likely it is that the president will not sign the bill into law. Normally, when a bill is sponsored by a representative from a political party different from that o the president, the best thing for him to do if he seeks to have the bill passed into law is to compromise with the president and the other political party. Compromise can be manifested by deleting some portions of the bill which is objectionable on the part of the other political party. It bears stressing that if the sponsor of the bill refuses to eliminate these objectionable portions it is more likely that the president will likewise refuse to sing the bill into law and veto it. Conclusion The democratic system of government is indeed a complex system which requires the proper balance among its three branches. Based on the foregoing, there are many factors why a president may make use of his veto power. It could be because of the personality of the president. There are some presidents who are more inclined to veto legislations because they feel they have support of the electorate. President may also veto legislation because of the person sponsoring the bill. It is possible if the sponsor of the bill is someone other than a party mate of the president and the former does not make any compromises with the president such as deleting any objectionable portion of the bill then it is possible that the bill may be vetoed. Also, it could be because of the defects in the bill itself such as it is unconstitutional, unethical and immoral or may be because it is not yet timely.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
HRM - Conflicts of Scientific and Humanistic Values 1.0 Introduction One of the popular theory of the Ã¢â¬Å"Critical Theorist Ã¢â¬Å" ( with referrence to the Marxist view ). science reduce humankind to passive objects beholden to the laws of "nature." Sociology, as a form of science, is therefore also criticized for making scientific studies a means to an end unto themselves, as well as for not recognizing the importance of the individual. Modern society at large is criticized for being obsessed with rationality and efficiency instead of human emancipation. Also, people have become overly controlled by technology. For example, constant stimuli such ad television pacify us and control our thoughts and emotions. Culture also comes under attack for becoming what has been termed a culture industry. Instead of having stories, beliefs or artifacts for their own sake, culture has become commodified It has lost spontaneity or the ability to inspire originality in people. Similarly, there is said to be a knowledge industry. Universities are seen as oppressive institutions more concerned with increasing their influence than in providing students with knowledge. Likewise, in the field of organization development, humanistic and scientific are two different and opposite elements that have always been in constant conflict and tension. And so often the measure of these conflicts are the effectiveness or efficiency of an organisation. In my point of view, "humanistic" in nature and approach, whatever the subject, seeks to solve problems "from a human-centered viewpoint." And hence this paper could be an attempt of such effort. 2.0 What is efficiency ? Efficiency is highly prized in a culture turned toward productivity. It is therefore cultivated in contemporary business administration theories. It also tends to be prized above all other values in modern society, as society is more and more oriented toward technological advancement. Efficiency is also defined here as the most economic or the shortest or fastest or most simple way of realizing or achieving a goal with the least cost. As a means of evaluating human activity in business and practical activity in general, efficiency is, therefore, the standard. It is a standard of quality pertaining to the action, but it cannot be considered a moral virtue, since the quality of good or evil does not derive from the form in which an objective is achieved but from the goal or end that the action achieves. To give an extreme example, one could say that Hitler and his engineers were extremely efficient in achieving the goal of exterminating Jews.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Core Texts: La Belle Dame Sans Merci. A Ballard Ã¢â¬â John Keats Sonnet 116 Ã¢â¬â William Shakespeare My Last Duchess-Ferrara Ã¢â¬â Robert Browning Illumination Texts: Sonnet 18 Ã¢â¬â William Shakespeare Valentine Ã¢â¬â Carol Ann Duffy PorphyriaÃ¢â¬â¢s Lover Ã¢â¬â Robert Browning In the above poems love is presented in 3 very different ways, twisted and false love, typically romantic forbidden love, and unchanging love. Twisted and controlling love is a theme that can be seen in some of Robert BrowningÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry. My Last DuchessÃ¢â¬ is a dramatic monologue written in 1842 by Robert Browning. It is written in 28 rhyming couplets, with iambic pentameter, which dominates the poem. The conversational flow of the poem is created by making caesura and enjabment. The enjambed lines may indicate control that the speaker is exerting on the conversation and give the feeling that the speaker is rushing through parts of the poem, possibly smimming over the parts the show him in a unflattering light.When the Duke speaks of the death of his wife, for example, the lines running over suggest that he is nervous about the subject and is nervous of whether he is revealing too much about his envolvement and the caesuras also suggest to the reader that he is hiding something or that he is pausing to carefully think about his phrasing. However, perhaps on reflection, he then boast of his envolvement in line 45 Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Ëi gave commandsÃ¢â¬â¢ possibly showing his character as fake and mysterious, untrustworthy.We know that the Duchess died suspiciously and that the Duke is in the process of looking for a new wife, and suggesting he disposed of his old one. He is speaking to a messenger about a painting of his now deceased Duchess. The Duke, of course, is casting himself in a favorable light and is presenting his best side. He wants to make it look as if his wife was cheating on him and was unfaithful to him, showing he is not trust worthy. He is v ery controlling, and could not control her and her smiles or looks Ã¢â¬â line 24 Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Ëtoo soon made glad, too easily impressedÃ¢â¬â¢.This smile was what the Duke likes the most about the painting of the DuchessÃ¢â¬âhe feels that the painter accurately captured the smile and the ? Ã¢â¬Ëspot of joyÃ¢â¬â¢ in the Duchess. Now that the Duke owns this painting and has placed it behind a curtain, he can at last control who is graced with her smile. ?Ã Ã Ã Ã When the Duchess was alive, the Duke could not control her smile and love for life and he considered her unfaithful. Other aspects of the Duke that remain unclear include his true character and his true feelings for the Duchess, whether he really ever loved her or not, remain unknown.As mentioned, he is presenting his best side, but through his speech the reader sees how he is very jealous and controlling, which leads one to believe that he may have many dishonorable qualities. With such a negative descri ption of the Duchess, suggesting she was unfaithful and lacking in refinement, it raises questions about the DukeÃ¢â¬â¢s true feelings for the Duchess. This is where the idea of twisted and false love. We question whether the Duke ever loved the Duchess or whether she was just another object for him to control and toy with for his own personal enjoyment and not becasue of true love for his wife.This twisted and somewhat controlling love can be seen in another of BrowningÃ¢â¬â¢s poems. In both Porphyria's Lover and My Last Duchess, Browning describes a man who responds to the affection of a woman by controlling and ultimately killing her. Each monologue offers the speakers' reasons for his actions towards the desired woman from subject to his object. For example, we have already seen in My Last Duchess, the Duke may have murdered his wife out of jealousy, but decides to keeps a portrait of her behind a curtain so none can look upon her smile without his permission.Similarly in Po rphyria's Lover, the man wishes to preserve a single perfect moment between himself and Porphyria and so he kills his lover and sits all night embracing her carefully arranged body, as to enjoy the control he used to preserve the moment. In PorphyriaÃ¢â¬â¢s Lover the man seems to become convinced that Porphyria wanted to be murdered, and claims Ã¢â¬Å"No pain felt sheÃ¢â¬ while being strangled, adding, as if to reassure himself Ã¢â¬Å"I am quite sure she felt no pain. Ã¢â¬ Sonnet 116 portrays a stark contrast to the twisted and controlling love of My Last Duchess.The main theme of this poem is unchanging love, that love can weather any storm and overcome adversity. The sonnet comprises of 3 quatrains with a new thought at the start of it, with a couplet at the end. each idea in a quatrian is linked, with the help of the steady ABAB rhythm, however it is kept fresh and light with the inclusion of halft rhymes. Sonnet 116 is about love in its most ideal form. It is praising th e glories of lovers who have entered into a relationship based on trust and the understanding that trials and tribulations are a part of relationship.The first four lines reveal the poet's pleasure in love that is constant and strong, and will not Ã¢â¬Å"alter when it alteration finds. Ã¢â¬ It describes love as it Ã¢â¬Ëlooks on tempest and is never shakenÃ¢â¬â¢ meaning that no matter what life presents, love can and does remain strong. it enstills a hope in love and relationships. The poet goes onto proclaim that true love is indeed an Ã¢â¬Å"ever-fix'd markÃ¢â¬ which will survive any crisis. Through to line 10 we see the poet explain the physical changes that can occur suring relationships, but reassures that ageing, death and physical appearance will not phase death, descrbing love as a Ã¢â¬Ëbending sickleÃ¢â¬â¢.The remaining lines of the third quatrain (9-12), reaffirm the perfect nature of love that is unshakeable throughout time and will remain so Ã¢â¬Å"ev'n to t he edge of doomÃ¢â¬ , ie death. It also points out that those who find true love, donÃ¢â¬â¢t realise how much enrichment. The poet reminds us that loveÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëworth [is] unknownÃ¢â¬â¢, meaning that love can give you strength you never had or knew existed. In the final couplet, the poet declares that, if he is mistaken about the constant, unmovable nature of true love, then he must take back all his writings on love.Moreover, he adds that, if he has in fact judged love inappropriately, no man has ever really loved, in the ideal sense that the poet professes and that his words are untruthful. This sonnet does not use as much romantic and poetic language as some of his othger sonnets, for example Sonnet 18. The reason for this, is to symbolise the reality of a relationship. sometimes it isnt always chocolates, roses and romantic poems. Often true love and real relationships has ups and downs, but one resounding idea is that features in this sonnet is that true love isnÃ¢ â¬â¢t easy, but Ã¢â¬Ëalters when alteration findsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëis ever fixedÃ¢â¬â¢.Valentine by Carol Ann Duffy, like Sonnet 116, is a poem that portrays love in its rawest form, without the extraneous poetic gestures of love, and instead focusing on a realistic view of love and its hinderances. In the poem Duffy suggests these normal, cliched gestures of love are meaningless and instead gives her lover an onion instead of a rose Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËI give you an onion'. Duffy looks at the ways an onion is suitable for showing love. She tells her lover what an onion will do for him and uses the onion as symbol. The onion could represent patience, discovery and tears.The onion represents the tough side of love and the truth about love. The demure and almost humble description of the onions outer skin described as Ã¢â¬Ë the moon wrapped in brown paperÃ¢â¬â¢ evokes the idea that love may seem boring when you first experience it, but if you take the time to look beneath the so calle dboring exterior, there is a inner beaty and radiance. This is realised with the word Ã¢â¬ËlightÃ¢â¬â¢, referrin to moon light. The imagery used in this poem is poetic, yet still holds true to the style of Sonnet 116, ie realism. The moon, may promise light Ã¢â¬â but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t always deliver.Duffy appears to be warning of trusting too much in the promises of romantic partners. Ã¢â¬ËThe careful undressing of loveÃ¢â¬â¢ may reveal a personÃ¢â¬â¢s true character and motives under the veneer of romantic vows, again critising the cliche romantic type. ?The poet goes on to cleverly create an image of tear-filled eyes Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËIt will blind you with tears like a lover. It will make your reflection a wobbling photo of grief. Ã¢â¬â¢ Here she refers to the stinging, burning properties of onions, using a technique which causes readers to try and visualise seeing through tear-filled eyes by the use of language such as Ã¢â¬Ëblind,Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ëtears,Ã¢â¬â ¢ Ã¢â¬ËreflectionÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëwobbling. These words all evoke memories of trying to view images through tears. She likens stinging hurts caused by insensitive loves and the blurred vision and sore eyes caused by crying and emotional pain to those created by an onion. La Belle Dame Sans Merci. A Ballard is portyas perhaps the most classically romantic type of love. Often passionate, poetic and short lived, this type of love is well represented in this poem, although it does have many interpretations. The style and language of the poem is very romantic, while theme can be interpretted as forbidden love.In the poem a young knight meets a beautiful woman, who is so described as Ã¢â¬Ë a faeries childÃ¢â¬â¢. This description immediately gives us the impression that this young woman is not of the mortal world. There are many stories surrounding relationships between mortals and immortals, and they are often thought to be forbidden. The barrier between these two worlds often l eads to unhappiness as the immortality of one partner creates problems in the relationship in many myths for example Persephone and Hades.The first glimpse we get that the relationship between the knight and the fairy may be forbidden is when the poet says Ã¢â¬Ëshe wept and sighed full soreÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â line 30. It is possible that the fairy is weeping as she knows the realtionship is doomed from the start, that the couple cannot stay together, as the crossover between mortal and imortal world is precluded. She may be powerless to stop the fate of the knight, and is feeling guilty for what she imposed on the knight.As the fairy is unable to help him escape his fate, she tries to comfort him as best she can, Ã¢â¬â line 33- Ã¢â¬Ëand there she lulled me to sleepÃ¢â¬â¢. As he sleeps the knight is shown the fate of a man like him, one who has had this fate placed upon him. he is not quite sure if it is a dream, or if he has entered his fate, shown by the constant switching o f scenery, from lakeside to hillside -lines 40-44. This dream like state relays back to the romantic love and the idea of dreams, beautiful fairies and other worlds were all romantic ideas, common at the time.This romantic, poet desciption of the knights lover, scenery and dreams are not dissimilar to one of the most famous sonnets. In Sonnet 18 the poet begins by asking whether he should compare Ã¢â¬Å"theeÃ¢â¬ to a summer day. He says that his beloved is more lovely and more even-tempered. He carries on, saying that everything beautiful eventually fades by chance or by natureÃ¢â¬â¢s inevitable changes. Coming back to the beloved he writes about, though, he argues that his or her summer wonÃ¢â¬â¢t fade nor will his or her beauty fade away.Moreover, death will never be able to take the beloved and concludes that as long as humans exist and can see, the poem will live on, allowing the beloved to keep living as well. This poem is has the classic romantic and poetic language, th e best instance being the comparison of the subjects beauty to the transient beauty of nature, as the lady in La Belle Dame Sans Merci, is described in realtion to nature. However the poet goes on to argue that the subjects beauty is the opposite to natures, as summer can be too hot and short etc Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËsummerÃ¢â¬â¢s lease hath all too short a dateÃ¢â¬â¢.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Like indefinite adjectives (aggettivi indefiniti), in Italian indefinite pronouns (pronomi indefiniti) refer in general (rather than specific) terms to persons, places, or things without specifying the noun which they replace. Italian indefinite pronouns that can function as both pronouns and adjectives include: The regular indefinite pronouns (gli indefiniti regolari), i.e., those that have both a singular and plural form as well as a masculine and feminine form.alcunoÃ¢â¬âanyalquantoÃ¢â¬âsomewhataltroÃ¢â¬âmorecertoÃ¢â¬âsomediversoÃ¢â¬âdifferentmoltoÃ¢â¬âveryparecchioÃ¢â¬âsomepocoÃ¢â¬âlittletalunoÃ¢â¬âsomeonetantoÃ¢â¬âsotroppoÃ¢â¬âtootuttoÃ¢â¬âallvarioÃ¢â¬âvarious Di questi vasi alcuni sono grandi, altri piccoli.Some of these vessels are big, others are small. Diversi lasciarono la scuola definitivamente.Several left the school permanently. Molti sono partiti subito, certi il martedÃ ¬, solo pochi rimasero.Many left immediately, some on Tuesday, and only a few remained. Troppi parlano senza riflettere.Too many (people) talk without thinking. E non sa ancora tutto.He (she) still does not know everything. Note The term tale/tali (such), which can function as both a pronoun and an adjective, only has a singular and plural form. The indefinite pronouns that have only a singular form.unoÃ¢â¬âaciascunoÃ¢â¬âeachnessunoÃ¢â¬ânobody, no one Venne uno a darci la notizia.Someone came to give us the news. A ciascuno il suo.To each his own. Nessuno ha preparato la colazione.No one has prepared the breakfast. Italian indefinite pronouns that function only as pronouns include: The indefinite invariable pronouns (gli indefiniti invariabili).alcunchÃ ©Ã¢â¬âanythingchecchÃ ©Ã¢â¬âwhateverchicchessiaÃ¢â¬âanyone, anybodychiunqueÃ¢â¬âanyonenienteÃ¢â¬ânothingnullaÃ¢â¬ânothingqualcosaÃ¢â¬âsomething Non cÃ ¨ alcunchÃ © di vero in ciÃ ² che dici.There is no truth in what you say. ChecchÃ © tu ne dica, farÃ ² come credo.Whatever you may say (about it), I will do as I believe. Non dirlo a chicchessia.Do not tell anyone. A chiunque mi cerchi, dite che tornerÃ ² domani.If anyone is looking for me, tell them that Ill be back tomorrow. Niente di tutto ciÃ ² Ã ¨ vero.None of this is true. Non serve a nulla gridare.There is no use shouting. Ha dimenticato di comprare qualcosa, ne sono sicuro!He forgot to buy something, Im sure! The indefinite pronouns that have only a singular form. ognunoÃ¢â¬âeachqualcunoÃ¢â¬âsomeone Ognuno Ã ¨ responsabile di sÃ © stesso.Everyone is responsible for himself. Qualcuno chiami un medico.Someone call a doctor. The indefinite pronouns nessuno, ognuno, chiunque, and chicchessia refer only to people: Nessuno (nobody, no one), when it precedes the verb, is used alone; when it follows the verb it is always reinforced by the negation non, which is placed before the verbal form. Nessuno puÃ ² condannarlo.No one can condemn him. Mio fratello non vide arrivare nessuno.My brother did not see anyone coming. Ognuno (everyone, everybody; each) is used to refer to each individual of a collection or group. Desidero parlare con ognuno di voi.I want to talk with each of you. Chiunque (anyone) is invariable and corresponds to qualunque persona (che); it can serve both as subject and complement (in two different clauses). ÃË un libro che consiglio a chiunque abbia senso dellumorismo.It is a book that I recommend to anyone with a sense of humor. Chicchessia (anyone, anybody), infrequently used, corresponds to chiunque. Riferiscilo pure a chicchessia.Report it also to anyone. The indefinite pronouns qualcosa, niente, nulla, alcunchÃ ©, and checchÃ © are used only to refer to things: Qualcosa means one or more things. Per cena, qualcosa preparerÃ ².I will prepare something for dinner. Ti prego, dimmi qualcosa.Please tell me something. Note The term qualcosa come corresponds to the expression allincirca (roughly). Ho vinto qualcosa come tre milioni.I won something like three million. Niente and nulla, negative indefinite pronouns (pronomi indefiniti negativi), mean nothing; if either term follows the verb they are accompanied by the negation non (which is placed before the verbal form). Niente Ã ¨ successo.Nothing happened. Non Ã ¨ successo niente.Nothing happened. AlcunchÃ © (anything), infrequently used, corresponds to qualcosa; in negative sentences it means nothing. Cera alcunchÃ © di curioso nel suo incedere.There was nothing strange in his gait. Non dire alcunchÃ © di offensivo.Do not say anything offensive. ChecchÃ © (whatever), an obsolete form, is a compound pronoun (one indefinite and one relative); it has the meaning of anything that and serves as subject and complement. ChecchÃ © Luigi dica, non mi convincerÃ .Whatever Louis says, he couldnt convince me. The indefinite pronouns uno, qualcuno, alcuno, taluno, ciascuno, altro, troppo, parecchio, molto, poco, tutto, tanto, alquanto, and altrettanto are used to refer to people, animals, or things: Uno (a) indicates a person, animal, or thing in a generic way. Linformazione me lha data uno che non conosco.The information was given to me by someone I do not know. Note Uni (the plural form of the pronoun uno) is used in conjunction with altri in phrases such as: Gli uni tacevano, gli altri gridavano.Some were silent, others were shouting. Qualcuno indicates a single person or a small amount, both for people as well as for things. Qualcuno mi ha telefonato, ma non so chi.Someone called me, but I do not know who. A qualcuno questo non piacerÃ affatto.Some will not like it at all. Ne ho qualcuno di queste riproduzioni.I have some of these reproductions. Note Essere qualcuno means to appear (from anonymity). ÃË qualcuno nel suo campo.It is someone in your field.