Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Ã¢â¬ËGender inequality is no longer relevant in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society.Ã¢â¬â¢ Do you agree free essay sample
While surfing the Internet recently, I came across an interesting blog post on the wildly popular website, tumblr, that tried explaining the reasons why women have a higher chance of getting employed. The picture that was portrayed on the blog depicted a drawing that said the more cleavage exposed during the job interview, the higher the chance of being employed. This clearly shows that gender inequality is still prevalent in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. It seems irrelevant that even with women being astronauts, presidents and fighter pilots who are in such powerful positions like the honorable Aung San Suu Kyi, women are still regarded as Ã¢â¬ËtoysÃ¢â¬â¢ in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern technological age. Though the advent of feminism and advocacy for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights is stronger, we are still facing gender inequality problems. The empowerment of women has yet to see its full potential. The world still conforms to the conventional notion that men should be the sole breadwinners. We will write a custom essay sample on Ã¢â¬ËGender inequality is no longer relevant in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society.Ã¢â¬â¢ Do you agree or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This would mean that women should be left to deal with the family and household chores while their husbands go out and conquer the world. The phenomenon of women bringing back a higher wage compared to their other half is considered bizarre. In Asia especially, it is rarely seen that women earn a higher income compared to men. The example of SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s income tax return form strengthens the point that womenÃ¢â¬â¢s wage being supplementary to that of a manÃ¢â¬â¢s is highly likely. A successful woman, in our current generation, is one who is able to juggle both menial work and household chores at the same time. This demeans the definition of being a woman thus concluding that gender inequality is still relevant in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. With the current economic recession and inflation on the rise, the rising cost of living is beginning to take a toll on families. Stress is placed on the sole breadwinner of the family, that being the head male of the house, to earn a better income to provide for his growing family. Again, a woman has to be able to hold the family together to make sure that the family doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t fall apart. This means that no time is given for women to excel in their jobs, which then adds on to the fact that women cannot be the sole breadwinners. As mentioned earlier, women are constantly being lauded for being able to cook well and at the same time, keep the house spic and span. Adding on to that, the widespread fact that women belong at home, especially in the kitchen, is being constantly portrayed in popular movies, websites and books, available for everyone to see. However, in an egalitarianÃ¢â¬â¢s defense, gender inequality has greatly shown signs of improvement. For example, gender quotas have been placed in some top parliaments with great female representations. These quotas ensure that some seats in the parliament should be reserved for females. In India, for example, females must occupy 33.1% of the seats in the parliament while the remaining 66.9% are reserved for males. Some governments are also extremely supportive of the idea of gender equality to such an extent that at least a female must occupy 1 in 3 top parliamentary positions. Overall, we can see that even though gender inequality is slowly improving, it has not reached the extent that it has become totally non-existent, as it is still evidently relevant in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. It is still prevailing amongst the majority of the world. Though gender inequality still exists in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, we can see that it is taking a turn for the better. With Forbes Magazine dubbing Oprah Winfrey the most powerful and influential woman, Aung San Suu Kyi winning the Nobel Peace Prize, and both Hilary Clinton and Sarah Palin running for President of the United States of America in 2008, we can clearly see that the common stereotype that women are not as strong as physically and mentally as strong as men is slowly fading. Hopefully in the near future, we will be able to see both genders treated more equally.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
The Genius of Julius Caesar Free Online Research Papers In terms of political and military genius, surely none can compare to the brilliance of Gaius Julius Caesar. With glowing political ambition and the military genius needed to see it realised, Caesar revolutionalised the Roman republic through his ability to manipulate the Cursus Honorum, his formation and manipulation of the First Triumvirate and his triumphant military conquests in Gaul; partially attributed to his inspirational leadership. All these successes lead to the conclusion that Gaius Julius Caesar truly was, to a large extent, a political and military genius. Born into a traditional, though not wealthy, Patrician family, Caesar was influenced to achieve political success from a young age. On the one side, his family had not seen success for generations; his father making only Praetor. This gave Caesar some political guidance while filling him with ambition to succeed for family honour. On the other side however, he was related by law to Marius. Marius held consular position six years in a row and was involved in civil war with Sulla. This influence gave Caesar the thought of using illegal force to achieve his ends, and the knowledge that political success could be achieved through military accomplishments. Both these influences were to guide him in his future military and political successes. Julius Caesar showed he was able to achieve political success from a young age. At nineteen, he openly defied Sulla, refusing to divorce his wife. This was so abrasive it caused Sulla himself to comment Ã¢â¬Å"There are many MariusÃ¢â¬â¢ in this fellow CaesarÃ¢â¬ (Suetonius, 1979, p.1). Caesar showed he had the characteristics to succeed from the moment he enrolled in the army, aged twenty. His military brilliance was such that he was awarded the civic crown, the highest honour granted to a soldier. On the way to Rhodes, he was captured by pirates. It was here his exceptional abilities were first shown. Not in the least intimidated, Caesar according to Suetonius Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦had often smilingly sworn, while still in their power, that he would soon capture and crucify them; and that is exactly what he didÃ¢â¬ (Suetonius, 1979. p.15). This act was unprecedented for a private citizen, and showed his ability to use initiative and force to gain or enforce power. It also showed he had the determination, ambition and arrogance needed to achieve political and military glory. His political genius can be easily recognised through his exploitation of the Cursus Honorum. Caesar used each position he held intelligently to further his popularity, which he correctly saw as the key to a successful political career. When elected as Quaesitor in 63BC, he went to the Po River and gained clientela by exploiting the discontent felt there due to lack of citizenship. In 65BC, when elected as Aedile, he held lavish games and amazing displays to please the crowd, spending money Ã¢â¬ËrecklesslyÃ¢â¬â¢. He realised that huge debts could be cleared as his power grew, but he needed popularity with the people to gain power. This popularity led to his election as Pro-Praetor in 61BC. In this office he held campaigns in Spain, where he had military successes which cleared his debts, and gave him the military reputation needed to achieve further political power. It is obvious to conclude that such brilliant exploitation of each of his offices in the Cursus Honorum places him under the umbrella of Ã¢â¬Ëpolitical geniusÃ¢â¬â¢. His most influential, if not clever, political endeavour was his formation and manipulation of the First Triumvirate. To reach consular position and further his political career, Caesar needed to make powerful and carefully planned alliances. He approached Pompey and Crassus, two of the most powerful men in Rome. Together they held influence over the entire state. Plutarch comments: Ã¢â¬Å"A city, like a ship, can gain stability from opposed forces, which together prevent it from rocking one way or another; but now these forces were united into one and there was nothing to stop its movement of violent part interest from overthrowing everythingÃ¢â¬ (Plutarch, 1974, p.206). While Pompey and Crassus had thought only of the short term benefits, Caesar had carefully considered this alliance, and how he could manipulate it, for his long term personal gain. Through the triumvirate he had himself elected as consul. He then had his two greatest political adversaries, Cato and Cicero, removed from Rome. To do this he had a tribune elected through the power of the Triumvirate, who then had Cicero exiled and Cato sent to Crete as provincial governor. He then further used their powers to be given, at the conclusion of his consulship, a decent province, which the Senate was attempting to thwart. Caesar was aware that a good province would be necessary if he was to achieve military greatness, and thus extend his political career. Throughout his Pro-Consulship he used the Triumvirate to look after his interests back in Rome. Clearly, the insight and subtle cleverness in the formation and manipulation of the First Triumvirate adds weight to the claim of Ã¢â¬Ëpolitic al genius.Ã¢â¬â¢ His campaigns in Gaul are where his true military genius can be clearly seen. In Gaul, Caesar accomplished three great military feats. Firstly, he bridged the Rhine River. This proved to his German opposition that he was capable of anything, and greatly increased his armiesÃ¢â¬â¢ mobility. Such a technological feat was unprecedented. Secondly, Caesar attacked Briton. This caused excitement in Rome as no Roman had ever had ever raided that far north before. The prestige and reputation Caesar gained was far more valuable then the monetary funds plundered. Florus believes Ã¢â¬Å"Caesar was satisfied with what he had done Ã¢â¬â he was after all only out to acquire a reputation, not a provinceÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Williams, 1996, p.187). This shows how Caesar cleverly used his military feats to extend his political career. Thirdly, he produced the greatest siege ever attempted. Caesar had the Gaulish army, united under Vercingtorix, surrounded on an unassailable hill in Alesia. Aware that reinforcements were marching behind him, Caesar, in a stroke of brilliance, built two Forts, to protect himself in front and behind. To do this he had two trenches dug on both sides, one filled with water. He then had an array of spikes, holes, stakes and obstacles implemented in front of them to impede the armies further. At the conclusion of a dirty battle, Caesar was victor, having defeated two armies who together outnumbered him five men to one. The incredible reputation that these events gained for Caesar, as well as the money and land that Caesar gained personally and for the state, proves without a doubt that Caesar planned every event to impress and to contribute to his political career. These events proved that Caesar was undoubtedly a military genius. His military genius extends further, to his brilliance as a general. His successes in battle are largely a result of his menÃ¢â¬â¢s loyalty and adoration of him. Plutarch voices the opinion that Ã¢â¬Å"His ability to secure the affection of his men, and to get the best out of them was remarkableÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Plutarch, p. 59). His brilliance as a leader further backs the title of Ã¢â¬Ëmilitary geniusÃ¢â¬â¢. In conclusion, such deep insight into the exploitation of each political position he held, such thought and cleverness in the formation and manipulation of the First Triumvirate, his stunning military exploits in Gaul and brilliance as a leader seamlessly portray a man who can be, to a large extent, described as a Ã¢â¬Ëpolitical and military geniusÃ¢â¬â¢. If ever a man lived who was deserved of so prestigious a title, Gaius Julius Caesar would be that man. Research Papers on The Genius of Julius CaesarAppeasement Policy Towards the Outbreak of World War 2Quebec and CanadaBringing Democracy to AfricaAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropePETSTEL analysis of India19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationWhere Wild and West MeetCanaanite Influence on the Early Israelite Religion
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Soil Enzyme Activity - Lab Report Example Results show that combined fertilizer had the highest enzyme activity of 1.493 followed by organic fertilizer (1.148), inorganic fertilizer (0.529) and unammended (0.459) soil sample in that order. Combination of inorganic fertilizer and organic fertilizer provides efficient environment for the growth of soil bacteria hence production of more alkaline phosphatase enzymes thus resulting into high enzyme activity. These findings shows how an integrated fertilizer regime play an important role in altering the structure of the soil microbial composition, stimulates microbial growth and increases enzyme activity as compared to the inorganic fertilizer. Microorganisms play a vital role in biochemical transformation important for nutrient cycling in soils. The microorganisms in the soil are capable of breaking down insoluble nutrient sources in the soil and in the process produce extracellular enzymes. Extracellular enzymes are biochemical catalysts, protein compounds produced within the bacterial cell and exported out into the soil solution. While outside the cells, enzymes catalyze reactions that break down the structure of nutrient source in order to make it more accessible to the plants. The quantities of extracellular enzymes are therefore dependent on substrate concentration, soil microorganismsÃ¢â¬â¢ metabolic ability, soil environmental conditions such as temperature and pH and the number of microorganisms present in the soil (Lichtfouse, 228). Alkaline Phosphatase is an example of extracellular enzyme produced by many soil microorganisms and exported out into the soil solution. The main function is to eliminate the phosphate molecule from the organic compounds such as nucleic acids and phospholipids.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
How the Trans Alaska Pipeline Affected the Lives of the Alaskan Nativesand the company itself - Essay Example The single 48-inch (1.22 m) diameter pipeline was built between March 27, 1975 and May 31, 1977 at a cost of around US$8 billion. Five different contractors employing 21,000 people at the peak of work constructed the pipe in six sections; 31 were killed in accidents during construction (Trans Alaska Pipeline). during the course of the project (qtd. from Cowans). The obstacles faced and overcome in building the trans-Alaska pipeline are simply astounding. The harsh temperatures, rough terrain, lack of Arctic pipeline building knowledge at this time and the environmental concerns of a pipeline had to all be considered in making this project a success. In 1994, the American Society of Civil Engineers named the Alaska pipeline one of the "Seven Wonders of the United States". Their list includes the Panama Canal, Golden Gate Bridge, Hoover Dam, the Kennedy Space Center, the Interstate Highway System, and the World Trade Center (qtd. from Cowans). Along the pipeline, there are eleven pump stations, each with four pumps. Diesel or natural gas generators power each electric pump. Twelve pump stations were planned but Pump Station 11 was never built, though the southward numbering system for the pump stations retains a place for this nonexistent station. Usually only around seven stations are active at one time, and plans to replace the existing pumps with newer high-efficiency pumps may reduce the number of active stations even further (qtd. from Trans Alaska Pipeline). In areas where thaw-sensitive permafrost exists but the line must be buried, such as highway crossings or avalanche-prone areas, the pipe is encased in an insulated, refrigerated ditch. Nearby refrigeration, plants pump cold brine through 6-inch (15 cm) pipes, which absorb heat and keep the soil cooled. Other areas of burial are either conventional covered ditches or unrefrigerated but insulated ditches, depending on the sensitivity of the surrounding soil (qtd. from Trans Alaska Pipeline). The pipeline was completed on June 20, 1977 and the first oil was pumped into the pipeline. On July 8, 1977, a huge explosion destroyed Pump Station Eight. The explosion killed one worker and injured five more. Human error was attributed to the cause of the explosion. On July 19, 1977, a loader damaged a valve just south of Prudhoe Bay. Approximately 2,000 barrels of oil spilled onto the ground before the leak was stopped and repaired. On the next day, the first attempt of sabotage occurred. A section of insulation from the pipeline was torn off and supporting pipe brackets were torn from the line just north of Fairbanks. The pipeline itself was not injured and the oil continued to flow south towards Valdez. Several people were later arrested and convicted for malicious destruction of property (qtd.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Individual Assignment 1 Implementation of the Porters Five Forces Model - Research Paper Example Despite of this, yet there are minute chances for them to differentiate the way they do businesses. The framework of Professor Michael Porter is widely used to analyze the attractiveness of an industry as well as its competitive positions. PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces model is applicable to banking industry to a great extent (Hill 2008). Five forces that are used in this model are: Threat of new entrants refers to the number of entrants that cause an increase in the number of players performing similar activities and serving a similar market. In banking industry, an average person cannot start up his own bank therefore there is low threat of new entrants due to variety of forces that discourages the new players. Main threat to enter in a banking industry is the requirement of large capital investment. This obligation doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t permit every other person to enter into this industry and only entrepreneurs can commence business in this sector. Running a bank needs specialized knowledge and expertise regarding this area which can not be possessed by every other person. The complexities of this sector can only be understood by someone who has lifetime experience of working in this area. Owners who have life time experience of working in banking sector and deals with the complications with sharpness are observed to achieve greatest success in this area. Not every other person is able to take such huge responsibility. There can be threat of new entrants for banking sector when other financial institutions start offering the services which are being offered by conventional banking systems. What if insurance companies start offering loan and mortgage services? That can be a threat for banking sector. Substitutes tend to steal the market share and intensify the competition. In banking sector, there are plenty of substitutes as one can probably imagine. Every banking suite is offering similar products and services. At the lending side of industry, there are
Friday, November 15, 2019
Etiology of Substance Abuse Ã¢â¬Å"Drugs are a bet with your mind.Ã¢â¬ (Jim Morrison). People start taking drugs by their own choice. In early stages they feel stress-free and euphoric but as life goes on they start getting dependent on it and face difficulty to depart it from their lives. A true feelings and perceptions which abuser has for them are Ã¢â¬Å"I am sick and tired of being known as an addict.Ã¢â¬ (Arun et al.2004). To live with these perceptions are challenging but to abandon drugs is even more challenging for them. According to (DSM-IV), Ã¢â¬Å"Substance use disorders are now defined as maladaptive patterns of substance use leading to inability to control, use despite significant consequencesÃ¢â¬ . According to National Institute of Drug Abuse (2014), Substance abuse has a lot of effects on society and cause deaths. Use of substance abuse in adolescent, adults and elderly people is creating problem to fulfill their responsibilities and its consequence are very much destructive. According to Annual prevalence of drug use in Pakistan (2012) as cited in UNODC (2013), an expected 5.8 percent of the people in Pakistan utilized illicit substances in the previous 12 months. 11 % of substance utilization was present in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 6.5 % of substances used in Sindh and 8.5 % of illicit substances used in Punjab. Substance abuse is referred as terrible deed as it violets societal standards and values by accelerating savage acts. This topic has a huge impact on individual lives, socioeconomic status, health care system and their psychology. Moreover in my clinical rotation, I encounter 25 years old lady being hospitalized for attempt to suicide. During our discussion, she confesse s that her husband is a substance abuser since 2 years and despite the fact she was pregnant, her husband beats him so badly that her baby abort. As this incident touches my heart which endorse me to write about this topic. This paper would profit the readers in a manner especially to those individuals who are indulge in substance abuse so they will know what elements cause substance abuse and how its perilous impacts effects on their lives. It will also talk about, what therapies individuals can approach to depart illicit substances from their lives. Some individuals are at higher risk of substance enslavement. No single variable can anticipate dependence on substance abuse. According to the recent Drug Use in Pakistan Technical Summary Report (2013), Ã¢â¬Å"an estimated 6Ã ·45 million (5Ã ·8%) people aged15Ã¢â¬â64 years in Pakistan used plant-based or synthetic drugs, or prescription drugs for non-medical purposes in the past 12 monthsÃ¢â¬ . (pp.2153). Alternately, there are a few causes that make an individual more inclined to it. The etiology of substance abuse in youth is divided into three classes i.e. Familial, Social, and Individual. Familial factors include childhood mal-treatment in which children could have physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect by parents so they grope dismissed and end into substance abusive behavior. According to Whitesell et al. (2013), Ã¢â¬Å"29% of children who experienced maltreatment participating in some level of substanceÃ¢â¬ . (p.3). Additionally if any family member is abusin g drugs in front of child so they imitate same behavior as they perceive parents their role model. Research shown that parental substance abuse increases genetic predisposition for substance use disorder (Dunn et al. 2002). In my opinion parental training plays an essential part in guiding child about substance abuse matters and lack of education can incline a child for substance abuse. Other factors are marital status of parents, child perception that parents approve of their substance use. (Whitesell et al, 2013). Social elements that may include deviant peer relationship in which adolescence joins those gatherings who uses illicit substances. Teenagers who experience childhood in unsteady community conditions are really less vulnerable to deviant peer relationship. (Whitesell et al, 2013). In my opinion individuals affiliate themselves with distinctive gatherings and they imagine that utilizing substances make them popular. Research also supports that youths who classify themselves as famous have indicated to have expanded predominance of substance utilization when contrasted with those who dont recognize themselvesÃ¢â¬ (Whitesell et al, 2013). According to Taylor et al. (2009), bulling is related to substance abuse behavior. 12 % individuals who suffered from bulling experienced life time use of alcohol. (Taylor et al, 2009). There are many individual factors that end up in substance abuse. One of them is depression; it encompasses feelings of sadness, pain, despair, or anger. In my opini on people use to abuse substances to cope from depression but it is also as vice versa because after usage of drugs depression cans occur. According to shafiq et al. (2006), In Pakistan 65% can lead depression I have seen many people in my community who are using illicit drugs because they feel that drugs can alleviate their stressful feelings. Transition of individual from adolescence to young, middle and older adult hood has increases burden in everyday life. Life stressors like financial burden, loss of job and poverty may trigger the use of illicit substances. According to Drug Abuse Master Plan (2010-2014), Ã¢â¬Å"In Pakistan 32 % of the opioid users were unemployed in the past six monthsÃ¢â¬ (p.7). People with mental problems also suffered from substance abuse problems. Research suggests that about 50 % of the individuals with psychiatric issues likewise experience the substance abuse problem. (chrome et al., 2009). Substance abuse has a lot of devasting impacts on abusers lives. They can be divided in to three domains i.e. physically, socially and psychologically. Physical impacts are, as abusers use syringes for administration of drugs and due to lack of syringes they apply contaminated syringes on each other which make them vulnerable to blood borne diseases like HIV and hepatitis C. As study also supported that, In Pakistan73% people uses same syringes as there more syringes are not available. (UNODC, 2013). High risk sexual behaviors are observed among drug abusers i.e. un- protected sex which leads to further sexually transmitted disease i.e. In Pakistan Ã¢â¬Å"36% reported having sex with those clients who are HIV positiveÃ¢â¬ . (UNODC, 2013). As drugs impact our central nervous system so it causes different psychological impacts like anxiety in which people have feeling of uneasiness and disturbance in sleep is also common. Substance abuser can suffer from different mood disorders like bipolar disorder. According to moal et al. (2007), Study has revealed that more or less 35% of addicts met lifetime criteria for a mood issue and 45% for an anxiety issue. Substance abuser also suffers from aggression. (Moal et al. 2007). There are many social impacts of substance abuse. In my opinion Isolation can be one of them and on the other hand, absence of acknowledgement from society additionally makes them evade social collaborations. As I have observe in my community that couples fighting is very common and it can further cause separation. Usually people indulge themselves in so much addicted behaviors so they lose their jobs and financial burden increases. According to Angres et al. (2008), Substance abuse negatively impacts public safety, reduces workers, productivity, and contributes to higher healthcare costs, premature deaths, and disability. (pp.696).Abusers have risky behaviors which also detoriate their health. Prendergast (2009) affirms that substance abusers are involved in different criminal acts. Generally individuals crave for drugs and to satisfy their need they involved in criminal acts like robbery so they can purchase their drugs. Leisure et al, (2007) affirms that drug abusers are usually involve in gambling which increases financial burden. In substance abuse relapse is commonest among individuals. According to yaqub (2013), Ã¢â¬Å"Studies have revealed that the relapse rate in Pakistan is around 90%Ã¢â¬ . In theory brain reward mechanism in which addictive substances trigger brain reward circuit which in turn initiate certain behaviors. The effects of these abusive drugs on mesolimbic dopaminergic system are very serious and associated with creating rewarding effects. If this system does not work properly so it may create certain addictive properties. Dopamine expands extracellular; focus overriding the control of motivated and objective regulated behavior, which motivates them to take drugs. Certain medications are known to alter dopamine discharge and reuptake which modify reward system and increases uptake and relapse. (Eps et al. 2012). The congnitive behavior model of relapse tells about the high risk situations in which person is prone to have relapsed. He describe eight categories like how person interact with different people (Ã¢â¬Å"affect, coping, self-efficacy, outcome expectanciesÃ¢â¬ ) and certain environmental factors like (Ã¢â¬Å"asses to drugs, cue exposure and society influenceÃ¢â¬ ). It depend on individual that how he cope with these situations and it depend on him whether he uses substances or not. If individual decided and involve in substance abuse so they may suffer from AVE (Abstinence violation effect). AVE includes two things one affective response, in which person feels embarrassed and disgrace because he thinks he is responsible for this and second is cognitive domain which is based on attributional therapy, in which person perceived that this lapse is due to my personal factor and I cannot control them so he may have greater chances of relapse and if he thinks that it happens because of external factor and I can control it so relapse chances are deceased. (Marlatt and Witkiewitz, 2007). On my clinical I have encounter patient 15 years old with relapse of substance abuse. He verbalized me that he had left substance abuse for 3 months but because it was easily available and my friends influenced him so he took drugs and end up in relapse. If we related it to cognitive therapy of relapse environmental factors influence him to end up in relapse which created feeling of guilt and embarrassment It is recommended that government should arrange certain awareness programs on substance abuse. Not only have that media played vital role in substances promotion so government should band those advertisement. Government should create certain institutions and build certain rehabilitation centers in community which are in reasonable cost. More over certain therapies can help patient to quit substance abuse .These therapies are : In Motivational enhancement therapy, counseling approach is used and attempts to modify the behavior of substance abusers. MET is derived from Trans theoretical Model of Change. In this model counselor tend to change person behavior by five levels. In first level of Precontemplation individual does not consider his/her behavior problematic and donÃ¢â¬â¢t try to change it. In level two Contemplation people consider his challenging and think to modify it. In third level Preparation, person in this stage plans for a particular change. They assess and select measures for behavioral change. Another level is Action; in which individual is modify his behavior. The last level is maintenance in which individual try to maintain his new behavior and try to adjust new behavior in his surroundings. (Prochaska et al, 1992). Contingency Management Therapies is based on operant conditioning which was proposed by skinners in which desire behavior is achieved by reward and punishment. The positive behavior which have given reward will be more likely to repeat for example when client has positive behavior so we can provide different gifts and voucher and if undesirable behavior exist so punishment should be there. (Carroll onken, 2005). Moreover with therapies we can likewise provide certain interventions. Substance abuse is a problem which cant drive away instantly and it requires significant time for individual to recuperate from it. At community level we can take some measures to prevent substance abuse. According to National Institute of Drug Abuse, you have to develop a community plan in which the first step is Ã¢â¬Å"AssessmentÃ¢â¬ . In assessment we will identify the population who are abusers and who are at risk for becoming abusers like people with low- economic status. In second step is Ã¢â¬Å"BuildÃ¢â¬ we will try to identify resources for example we need for different awareness programs in community. Than third we will build Ã¢â¬Å"Short term goalsÃ¢â¬ than after achieving short term goals we will run projects and simultaneously observe efficacy of preventive plan. According to National Institute of Drug Abuse affirms that Family-based preventive projects ought to strong family attachment and con nections examining and uses different family approaches to alleviate on substance abuse. In conclusion substance abuse is tremendously common issue among individuals. There are numerous reasons which are responsible for substance abuses in youth are familial, social and individual factors. As Age progresses, the risk of consumption of substances in adults also increases. The reasons behind substance abuse in adults are unemployment, poverty, traumatic events and any psychiatric problem. Substance abuse has a considerable amount of negative impacts physically, socially and psychologically. Even after treatment, some individuals again end up with state of relapse. Cognitive behavior therapy of relapse tells us about the risk factors that lead relapse. Some more therapies like motivational enhancement therapy and contingency Management Therapies help us to modify behavior of substance abusers. In my opinion we can develop insight in abusers and can modify their behavior. I would like to end up with quotation Ã¢â¬Å"Addiction should never be treated as a crime. It has to be treated as a health problemÃ¢â¬ . (Ralph Nader).
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Tempest:Ã Is Prospero Good or Evil?Ã Ã Ã To be able to answer this question we must first understand why Prospero can be seen as good or evil. It is fair to say that Prospero is a main protagonist to the plot of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Tempest. It is due to Prospero's role as a key figure in the play that has put him under so much scrutiny. Many different Shakespearean critics have their own view of Prospero and those that read or see the play also have their own opinion of the way in which Prospero may be seen. To be able to support either argument there must be evidence that backs-up each of the analysis of Prospero's character and why he is seen in such a way. Having been usurped and wrecked on an Island Prospero and his young daughter Miranda have to settle. It is here in Prospero's past that it first clear to see where any confusion about his character may appear. As a learned and powerful man Prospero is able to take direct control of the island, he frees a trapped and tortured spirit (Ariel) and befriends the inhabitants (Caliban). Prospero 'helps' Caliban, he tries to educate him and teaches him to communicate, in exchange Caliban helps Prospero to survive on the Island. But in taking power of the Island Prospero is committing the same act that happened to him as Duke of Milan, now Prospero himself has become the usurper. In this act of goodness Prospero has unknowingly shown his evil side. Prospero having been trapped on the Island with his daughter has bring her up alone. He tries to do this in as fair a way as he sees possible teaching her right from wrong and educating her in the ways of the world, however Prospero does not inform Miranda of their past until Miranda, he feels is old enough to understand. 'Thy father was Duke of Milan and a Prince of power' (A1 Sc2 Ln57) But with Prospero informing Miranda of this at such a late stage in her life is this Prospero as a control freak only allowing his daughter Miranda to know the truth when he feels it is time or is it Prospero being caring keeping this information from Miranda until she is of an age when she can fully understand who she is and where she came from?, again it is not clear to see if Prospero's intentions are for his own good or the good of his daughter.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Astrology provides a very debatable kind of knowledge that is generally assessed by the intelligent as a useless kind of knowledge, which only makes sense for the ignorant. At the same time astrology is usually associated with gypsies and hucksters, who are known for their deceptive and fake knowledge, as they try to deceive people for their own financial interest. On the other hand, we find people with high education attempting to study astrology and very much respect the kind of knowledge it offers them. Whether such knowledge offered through teaching astrology in universities is worth doing or to be considered an inapplicable knowledge for high education is a critical decision to make, which requires obtaining a great insight about astrology it self as an academic field in order to be able to make a correct assessment. Astrology is actually a combined form of knowledge that both combine both the element of art and of science in its essence. It contains the mathematical element as well as the artistic element o symbolism (Ã¢â¬Å"Astrology? Ã¢â¬Å"891). Scientists usually disregard the art side of astrology and focus on the basic mathematical part of it, as they judge it as useless and insignificant. This actually destroys the wholeness and balance within the realm itself. This may be considered a reason for misunderstanding the real value of knowledge in astrology. It is also a fact that every field is vulnerable to be used by ignorant people who devoid it totally of its meaning and value, in order to sell it as cheap as possible in a market of ignorance that unfortunately have many customers who are wiling to buy, again this helps in misunderstanding Astrology (Ã¢â¬Å"Astrology? Ã¢â¬ 891); and as there is the presence of the competent and the incompetent in every field, and people usually search for the best in every profession, so why exclude Astrology (Ã¢â¬Å"Astrology? Ã¢â¬ 896). Astrology requires a sophisticated kind of thinking as it combines artistic and scientific knowledge, it can therefore never be considered as insignificant knowledge. It may not be appreciated by scientists due to the artistic element provided within it, and their total dependence on reason for discovering reality since the onset of the renaissance; thus reviving such forms of knowledge actually, shows the evolution of knowledge and thinking that reflects the significance of intuitive forms of knowledge besides the pure rational ones. The astrological knowledge in itself consists of a natural balance between intuitive and rational knowledge, and disturbing this balance will only lead to the production of inconsistent forms of knowledge that seem to appear on the surface to help in the generation of misunderstandings regarding astrology. The argument of scientists against Astrology reflects the on going disagreement between scientific knowledge and intuitive forms of knowledge. Scientists never admit the truth in any intuitive understanding, and they usually regarded as invalid. They never accept the fact the mystery is part of reality and that the rational mind can never be able to reach full understanding of the universe. Astrology is a balanced kind of knowledge as it respects both forms of thinking, which in fact a respect for nature and for the human being as part of that nature. I feel that the purpose of a reading is to understand oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life challenges And potential, to provide an opportunity for self reflection and life Evaluation, as well as to confirm oneÃ¢â¬â¢s intuitive sense of what oneÃ¢â¬â¢s Life is about (Ã¢â¬Å"Astrology? Ã¢â¬ 895). Human beings as well as nature are made of matter and soul that can never be detached from each other as long as life is there. How can scientists reach the truth if they are actually altering the natural balance in life by looking for material proof and ignoring the intuitive reality of nature? The soul remains a mystery that can never be explained by scientific truth, and science can not resolve the question of life and death. There fore, accepting astrology as a significant form of knowledge by a scientist is truly a question of him admitting intuition as a part of reality. From another side, if the issue had not been on intuition, regarding astrology, it is still a form of knowledge that surely provides the individual with some insight about life and introduces him to different kinds of thinking; it should be even credited for this reason alone, Ã¢â¬Å"my studies in Astrology, as well as in other fields, are attempts to understand the grand design of the wholeÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Astrology? Ã¢â¬ 894). Scientists also accuse Astrological interpretive knowledge of not being exact Ã¢â¬Å"stars incline but do not compelÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"A critical? Ã¢â¬ 882), and this fact works against scientific logic which is sharp and determinant. But actually, life in it self is never exact or straight forward and clear as mathematical knowledge entails for instance. Astrology may actually provide the best for of understanding of life and nature; it allows people to understand reality the way it is without trying to alter its nature. The whole issue of prediction and future related knowledge can never be definite or fully explainable, Ã¢â¬Å"to discuss future probabilities is much like giving a weather reportÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Astrology? Ã¢â¬ 896). On the other hand, it should be admitted that Astrological knowledge may help in creating dependent and weak individuals, if they used it wrongly. It might lead them to spin in a cycle, which they might not be able to break. People can stress too much on the intuitive knowledge in Astrology and thus once again altering its balance of logic and intuition and thus getting again a wrong insight about life and nature, with an accompanied change in personality and attitude to life Ã¢â¬Å"Astrology, when practiced as completely as possible, takes away from ach of us our right and duty to make our own personal decisionsÃ¢â¬ (A Critical? Ã¢â¬ 882). In the case of a scientist who puts great emphasis on logic and excludes intuition, makes him a rough and rigid person who stands weak in front of the scientifically unexplained mysteries of the world; while in the case of the ignorant who does the opposite to give too much significance to intuition and disregards reason suffers another kind of weakness that creates a dependent and shattered personality. But again we must also admit that this would be the case with any field if wrongly interpreted. All in all, I believe that Astrology is a sophisticated form of knowledge that should be respected for the special thinking abilities it provides an individual who studies it. It also reflects on the importance of providing a balance between Art and Science, and thus between logic and intuition, which is found deep within the nature of man and the universe he lives in. I would very strongly recommend all institutions of high education to teach Astrology in order to correct the misunderstanding entitled to it, and thus expose the rich and deep knowledge it provides. Works Cited Bok, Bart J. Ã¢â¬Å"A Critical Look at Astrology. Ã¢â¬ The Humanist Costello, Priscilla. Ã¢â¬Å"Astrology, Science or Abracadabra? Ã¢â¬ Wellesley College.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Perils of Hope - Analysis Analysis of "Peril of Hope" The poem "Peril of Hope," by Robert Frost is about having hope. The poem speaks about no matter how things are one minute they can always change. Hope, however, is constantly there and will always be there to help get through the tough times until things get better.Imagery is used throughout this poem to help describe the extent of the boundaries of hope. Hope has endless boundaries in this poem it goes from one extreme to the next. In the first stanza (lines1-4), the poet describes a late fall scene just before winter when all the leaves have already fallen off of the trees. But in the same stanza, he also depicts a beautiful spring day just after all the leaves have come out before all the blossoms appear on the orchard trees. Frost does this to show the extremes in which hope can be found.Hope
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
holiday essays Billie Holiday was born April 7th, 1915, in Baltimore. Her original name was Eleanora Fagan. Although her father, Clarence Holiday, was a guitar/banjo player in Fletcher Hendersons band, she didnt break into the music world until her late teens. After being signed by Columbia Records John Hammond in 1933 for her debut record. Holiday went on to work with Teddy Wilson, Buck Clayton and Lester Young, who gave her the nickname Lady Day. He also toured the with the Count Basie Orchestra in 1937 and Artie Shaw in 1938. Billie Holiday was a victim of childhood rape and became a prostitute by her early teen years. It was her voice that saved her from such a life. After recording her first songs with Benny Goodman In1933, Billie realized that she could avoid a life of prostitution by singing although at times she said it scared her to death. Despite never receiving any formal training, Holidays unique singing technique and trademark white gardenias elevated her well above other jazz singers of her day. Lady Day, as she came to be known, also fought racial discrimination throughout her career. Billie signed with Louis Armstrongs manager, Joe Glaser, in 1935 and turned into a solo act in 1939. Although she enjoyed this spotlight, who wouldnt, she couldnt developed a dependence on heroin, a drinking problem, and a growing need for attention form men. Some think she searched for a father figure, and as she looked for a dominant male figure she was also aiming to satisfy her sexual appetite. Billie began to depend on these men who preyed on her for her beauty as well as fame. As her fame grew, her lifestyle began to influence began to affect her talent. In 1947 she was arrested for drugs, however this gave her huge publicity, and this new-found attention it brought to her enabled her to play a packed house at Carnegie Hall. ...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Giving adice to another student how well to do on test,why it is important it is to do well - Essay Example First of all, I advise that you study your lessons first thing, early in the morning while your mind is well rested and free from any worries. This will allow you to easily grasp information and remember them because your brain is not yet worked up. Moreover, the silence in the early morning allows your mind to work more efficiently without the disturbances or distractions noise and other things could bring. Secondly, it would be most helpful if you plan what you study starting from what is most difficult for you. Subjects you are having difficulty with requires more efforts to understand than those you usually enjoy so while your brain is still freshly rejuvenated, take the chance of devouring and understanding information which are difficult. Lastly, study your own notes because it is easier to remember things that you have written yourself. Of this demands that you take notes during lectures and that you have to listen well so you know the important information you need to jot
Friday, November 1, 2019
Modern Methods of Construction in Housing - Dissertation Example After the World War I and II, the demand of prefabricated housing came to its peak. Moreover, in 1960s this demand also got speedy turn during the time period of the clearance process of slum areas. In 20th century, about one million prefabricated houses were constructed. However, many among these were designed as temporary. There were many drawbacks in these houses and they did not receive positive feedback and attitudes from people. Initially, issues arose over the quality of material used in building process. Beside those, the workmanship was also very poor. However, these houses have continued to be used in UK for hotels, hospitals and schools as well as for residence and housing purposes in many other countries. As far as modern methods of construction MMC is related, it is quite a new term that reflects technical and scientific improvements regarding prefabrication. This method of construction includes a wide range of methods that are used on and off sites time to time. Modern methods of construction in housing focus on the modern and innovative methods, building products and construction systems. This modern and more advanced methodology are incorporated in construction process through various techniques. For example, steel framing, timber framing, insulated concrete forms, structured insulated panel system, decent and affordable housing, sustainable buildings and drainage system in urban areas etc. The basic objectives behind modern method of construction involve the promotion of better quality designs. ... Moreover, in 1960s this demand also got speedy turn during the time period of the clearance process of slum areas. In 20th century, about one million prefabricated houses were constructed. However, many among these were designed as temporary. There were many drawbacks in these houses and they did not receive positive feedback and attitudes from people. Initially, issues arose over the quality of material used in building process. Beside those, the workmanship was also very poor. However, these houses have continued to be used in UK for hotels, hospitals and schools as well as for residence and housing purposes in many other countries. As far as modern methods of construction MMC is related, it is quite a new term that reflects technical and scientific improvements regarding prefabrication. This method of construction includes a wide range of methods that are used on and off sites time to time. Modern methods of construction in housing focus on the modern and innovative methods, build ing products and construction systems. This modern and more advanced methodology is incorporated in construction process through various techniques. For example, steel framing, timber framing, insulated concrete forms, structured insulated panel system, decent and affordable housing, sustainable buildings and drainage system in urban areas etc. The basic objectives behind modern method of construction involve the promotion of better quality designs and innovative products and ideas within construction process. However, it is a long process that involves the relation and coordination of various activities. Various research and testing organizations, all over the world, are working in this regard. Their approvals connect