Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Criminology DNA Forensic Science Essay

We begin life as a single booth zygote, round 0. 1mm in diameter. The numerous biological instructions that enable our developmental and practicable processes to occur from zygote to adult atomic number 18 encoded in the deoxyribonucleic acid (desoxyribonucleic acid). rhetorical deoxyribonucleic acid synopsis involves the intersection of several scientific disciplines, including molecular biology, transmitteds, and statistical summary (Lynch, 2013). In order to understand the engrossfulness and the limitations of desoxyribonucleic acid in the compendium of physiologic narrate, it is important to be familiar with the basics principles key these diverse disciplines.Besides identical twins, separately individuals deoxyribonucleic acid is unique. After all it is the genetic material that contains all the information requirement for any organism to develop and function. However, only a wizard-half pct that is of interest to forensics scientists. This is the portion tha t varies greatly amid individuals and it is what manifests itself in the individual traits such(prenominal) as eye color, hair color, and blood type. Most often the differences in deoxyribonucleic acid sequence do not manoeuvre themselves in physical appearance however, these sequences move only be examined using special attainment lab proficiencys.Forensic scientists use these genetic differences from desoxyribonucleic acid to distinguish an individual between the individuals in a population. In 1944 Oswald Avery defined the role of the cellular parcel known as desoxyribonucleic acid as the vehicle of generational conveyance of heritable traits. In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick elucidated the structure of the desoxyribonucleic acid iota as a double lock. Form follows function the very own(prenominal)ity of the molecule provided an explanation for its unique properties (Berg, Tymoczko, Stryer, Gatto & adenylic acid Gatto, 2012).In 1980, David Botstein and coworke rs were the first to play the small variations found between people at the genetic direct as landmarks to construct a human gene map. In 1984, plot of ground searching for disease markers in deoxyribonucleic acid Alec Jeffreys discovered the science of personal identification. He termed this method acting desoxyribonucleic acid Fingerprinting, a method to detect loci sequentially (Alberts, Johnson & international ampere et al, 2008). This term is freshr replaced by desoxyribonucleic acid typing or deoxyribonucleic acid indite, Early in the use of desoxyribonucleic acid, profiles for the purpose of dentification were called desoxyribonucleic acid fingerprints, a term which is now rarely used (Porter, 2005). The first forensic use of desoxyribonucleic acid occurred in England, a desoxyribonucleic acid test was performed by Dr. Alex Jeffreys, who had essential deoxyribonucleic acid fingerprinting (Porter, 2005). One of the near signifi foott facts of the topic is that an s incere suspect was the first accused of the murder was freed based on the DNA order. Perhaps the most signifi earth-closett scientific advance besides the end of the structure of DNA was in 1986 the polymerase chain reception (PCR).PCR multiplies the sample and yields results which were at once un catchable, Furthermore, the statistical chances of a random coincidence in DNA of twain individuals with the same profile return now reached enormous figures in the billions (Porter, 2005). watching of cells and embryos in the late 19th century had led to the recognition that the genetical information is carried on chromosomes, thread-like structures in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell that became visible by light microscopy as the cell begins to divide (Alberts, Johnson & et al, 2008).As biochemical analysis became workable, chromosomes were found to consist of twain DNA and protein. DNA is the name given to a free radical of molecules that occur in all cells of all living or ganisms and that await that organisms genetic information. That, is they carry the instructions for making the chemical compounds, proteins, by which cells stay alive, grow, develop, reproduce, and carry out all the functions that constitute life as we know it.DNA molecules are very large, complex molecules made of only a hardly a(prenominal) simple sugar units combined with a phosphate group and one of four nitrogen bases, adenine A, cytosine C, guanine G, and thymine T (Alberts, Johnson & et al, 2008). The combination of one sugar molecule, one phosphate group and any on nitrogen base is called a nucleotide. A clear DNA molecule consists of very long chains of thousands of nucleotides joined together. The DNA molecule is comprised of two strands each wrapped around the separate in the form of a double-helix. The bases on each strand are the right way aligned in a manner known as complementary-base pairing.As a result, adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytos ine. Each gene is genuinely composed of DNA specifically designed to carry the task of peremptory the genetic traits of our cells. The position a gene occupies on a chromosome in known as a locus. Approximately 30,000 human genes fork up been identified. DNA duplicates itself prior to cell division. DNA replication begins with the unwinding of the DNA strands of the double helix (Berg, Tymoczko, Stryer, Gatto & Gatto, 2012). The two separate strands, now separated, act like a template for the formation of daughter strands.Each strand is now clear to a collection of free nucleotides that will be used to play the double helix using base pairing. The enzyme DNA polymerase catalyzes the sequential rise to power of nucleotides to the growing DNA strands. The advent of DNA technology has dramatically change the approach of forensic scientists toward the individualization of bloodstains and other biological factors as recount. The gamey sensitivity of DNA analysis and the subse quent search for DNA bear witness has even altered the types of materials collected from crime picture shows. Saferstein, 2013) Modern methods of obtaining DNA impart made it possible to obtain convictions on blood left at the scene, on semen, or even spittle behind on a postage stamp. It is surprising how often DNA is left behind, often when the distressing accidently cuts himself at the scene but also numerous other ways. DNA evidence makes detection of crime more probable (Porter, 2005). During an investigation, forensic evidence is collected at a crime scene, analyzed in a laboratory and often presented in court. Each crime scene is unique, and each case presents its own challenges.Complex cases may require the collection, trial and analysis of a large measuring of evidence. In terms of forensic DNA analysis, in that location is a variety of possible sources of DNA evidence. The more profitable sources include blood, semen, vaginal fluid, nasal secretions and hair with roots. It is theoretically possible to obtain DNA from evidence such as urine, feces and dead shin cells, though this is often classed as a poor source repayable to the lack of intact cells and advanced levels of contaminants preventing successful analysis.Prior to analysis, the it will be necessary to extract DNA from the sample. This is generally achieved through the following simplified steps. The sample cells are lysed (broken down) in a dampen solution. Denatured proteins and fats are pelleted through centrifugation. The cleared lysate is and so passed through a column, often containing a positively charged medium that binds to the DNA. Contaminating proteins, fats and salts are then outside through several washes. The DNA is recovered in a buffer solution (Rankin, 2005-2013).The use of DNA analysis in forensic science is based on a variety of techniques focusing on polymorphisms. antithetic sequences are studied in different techniques, including single nucleotide poly morphisms, miniskirt satellites (variable number in tandem repeats), microsatellites (short tandem repeats) and mitochondrial DNA, each different with regards to length and repeating (Rankin, 2005-2013). The latest method of DNA typing, short tandem repeat (STR) analysis has emerged as the most successful and widely used DNA write procedure.Generally, DNA extraction is the first step in forensic DNA analysis for use in human identification, and is essential to generating STR profiles from forensic biological samples (Lounsbury, Coult, Miranian, Cronk, Haverstick, Kinnon, Saul & Landers, 2012). STRs are locations on the chromosome that contain short tandem repeats that repeat themselves inside the DNA molecule. They express a high dot of polymorphism, making them of particular use to the forensic scientist. As STR regions are non-coding, there is no selective pressure against the high mutation rate, resulting in high variation between different people (Saferstein, 2013).Thoug h there have been thousands of short tandem repeats found in the human genome, only a small number are utilized in forensic DNA analysis. STR loci are ideal for use in forensic science for a number of reasons. They represent discrete alleles that are distinguishable from one another, they show a great power of discrimination, only a small amount of sample is required due to the short length of STRs, PCR amplification is plentiful and multiple PCR can be used, and there are low levels of artefact formation during amplification (Rankin, 2005-2013).The method of enzyme based produced PCR-ready DNA after only 20 minute incubation and requires no centrifugation or sample rapture steps. Implementation of this method into the workflow for forensic cases could reduce sample and DNA preparation time. The enzyme based method allows easy integration for downstream processes, such as PCR (Lounsbury, Coult, Miranian, Cronk, Haverstick, Kinnon, Saul & Landers, 2012). Polymerase chain reactio n (PCR) is a technique for replicating small quantities of DNA or broken pieces of DNA found at a crime scene, outside a living cell.Polymerase chain reaction is the outgrowth of knowledge gained from an understanding of how DNA strands naturally replicate within a cell. For the forensic scientist, PCR offers a distinct advantage in that it can amplify minute quantities of DNA many millions of times (Saferstein, 2013). The PCR cps consists of terce primary steps denaturation, annealing and extension. Denaturation, the sample is het to 94-95oC for about 30 seconds. This separates the double-stranded DNA by breaking hydrogen bonds, allowing primers access.Annealing, the samples is kept at 50-65oC, depending on the primer sequence, to allow hydrogen bonds to form between the primers and the complementary DNA sequence. Extension is also known as the elongation stage. The sample is heated to 72oC for duration depending on the length of the DNA strand to be amplified and the urge of t he polymerase enzyme (Taq polymerase) which builds up the strand. Deoxynucleotide triphosphates are added to the 3 end of the primer (Rankin, 2005-2013). Each PCR cycle can take only 5 minutes.This procedure can then be repeated as necessary until the original sequence has been amplified a sufficient amount of time, with the amount being doubled with each cycle. pastime PCR, the products are separated using electrophoresis. Electrophoresis is essentially a method of separating molecules by their size through the application of an electric field, causing molecules to immigrate at a rate and distance dependent on their size. The gelatin essentially acts as a type of molecular sieve, allowing smaller molecules to perish faster than larger fragments.Following electrophoresis, it may be necessary to come across these bands using radioactive or fluorescent probes or dyes (Berg, Tymoczko, Stryer, Gatto & Gatto, 2012). some other type of DNA used for individual characterization is mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) is locate outside the cells nucleus and is inherited from the mother (Saferstein, 2013). late(a) developments in forensic mribonucleic acid profiling systems have allowed the simultaneous illation of a variety of human cell types from small amounts of samples.In humanitarian to body fluids such as blood, semen, saliva, menstrual secretion and vaginal mucosa, the heading of skin cells can also be determined. Since more cell types can be examined, RNA profiling complements the existing detection methods of body fluids which are mainly serology-based and presumptive in nature. In forensic genetic analyses, the highest antecedence often goes to establishing the possible contributor(s) of DNA to an evidentiary trace.As a consequence, RNA profiling is incorporated into a DNA/RNA coassessment strategy that generates both a DNA and an mRNA profile from the same stain (Lindenbergh, Maaskant & Sijen, 2012). Mitochondrial DNA is generally use d when other methods such as STR analysis have failed. This is often in the case of badly degraded bodies, in cases of disaster or accidents where an individual is too badly damaged to identify. The most significant advantage of the use of mitochondrial DNA is the possibility of analyzing even passing degraded samples.If a specimen is severely decomposed to the point that it is not possible to success waxy extract a DNA profile using thermonuclear DNA, it may be possible through mitochondrial DNA. However the use of mDNA does have its disadvantages. As mitochondrial DNA is only maternally inherited, this cannot form a full DNA fingerprint of the individual, thus this technique is only beneficial if the DNA profiles of maternal relatives are available, such as the individuals mother or biological siblings (National Institute of Justice, 2012).Possibly the most momentous device to arise from DNA typing is the ability to compare DNA types recovered from crime scene evidence to those of convicted sex offenders and other convicted criminals (Lynch, 2013). Numerous countries have produced computerized databases containing DNA profiles to care in the comparison of DNA fingerprints and the identification of suspects and victims. The first Government DNA database was established in the United Kingdom in April 1995, known as the National DNA Database (NDNAD). As of 2011, there were over 5. million profiles of individuals in the system. Similarly, the FBI in the US formed their own DNA database, the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), in 1994, though it was not implemented in all states until 1998(Saferstein, 2013). Staff members involved in the handling and analysis of evidence will often also submit their DNA profiles to the database in the case of accidental contamination. There is the possibility for DNA databases to be shared between countries however some countries focus on different loci in DNA fingerprinting.Currently, U. S. crime laboratories have standardized on 13 STRs for entry into a national database (CODIS). Currently, DNA evidence is treated as exceptional, but it also is upheld as a model for other forms of forensic evidence to emulate. many an(prenominal) terms, such as investigation, inquiry, argument, evidence, and fact were established in law hearty before being associated with science. However, while legal proof remained qualified by standards of moral sure thing, scientific proof attained a reputation for objectivity (Lynch, 2013).Although most forms of legal evidence, including expert evidence, continue to be treated as fallible opinions rather than objective facts, forensic DNA evidence more and more is being granted an exceptional factual status. It did not always extol such status. Two decades ago, the scientific status of forensic DNA evidence was challenged in the scientific literature and in courts of law, but by the late 1990s it was being granted exceptional legal status.DNA profiling is often treated as an ex ceptional technique that has navigated the imaginary disjuncture between forensic and scientific culture, and has become so reliable that it can be used as a benchmark for evaluating all other forensic technologies. The STR system replaced the earlier systems, and automated scanning of samples replaced visual examination of profile results. The use of all these genetic tools allows forensic scientists to with more certainty find and convict criminals.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Fairtale Essay

One of the most well kn protest, well love and influential musical genre of literature is the sprite tarradiddle. A fe stamineat monarch news report is defined by the Oxford dictionary as A tikerens write up of put-onal and imaginary worlds and lands. Overtime the concept of sprite baloneys has changed. faery tales ar organism re-written and re-illustrated constantly, which makes queen regnant tales appealing to every generation. queen regnant tales broaden the resourcefulness of children. They allow us gain an insight into a world of magic and adventure- a world we testament never experience but ideate rough. king tales ar nonhing if not realistic and it is their cynicism that keeps them broodly. (Opie, 1980, p. 19) A distinctive of the fairy tale, as told today, is that it is unbelievable. Although a fairy tale is seldom a tale about fairy-folk and does not necessarily even feature a fairy, it does contain an enchantment or other supernatural element that i s understandably imaginary. (Opie, 1980 p. 18). The origin of fairy tales is commonly unknown and more often than not never discove chromatic by the reader. French writers Catherine Bernard, Marie-Jeanne Lheitier, Marie-Catherine dAulnoy argon believed to be chiefly responsible for the establishment of the fairytale as a literacy genre in Europe. (Zipes, 2006,p. 13) of the 1960s. However, it was Italian writers Giovan Francesco Straparola and Giambattista Basile who played a major role in the rise of literacy in Europe. This is unmatchable of the best kept secrets that is well outlay unlocking beca substance abuse it reveals just how closely tied the literacy fairy tale as genre is to spread of the civilizing process throughout Europe. (Zipes, 2006, p. 13) However, it was the act upon of Boccaccios Decamer iodin that led to the achievement of various collections of novelle that had an imp run on the literacy fairy tale as a short narrative.Straparola was the first to publish h is collection Le piacevoli notti (1550 and 1553) from the example Boccaccio had set. Straparola was dissimilar from previous writers. He was the first European writer to adapt more tales from oral tradition, creating approximately fourteen literacy fairy tales in his collection of seventy four novella. (Zipes, 2006, p. 14) Straparolas work caused whatsoever controersy and at one time one of his collections was banned by the pope in 1791. This was due to themes which Straparola had included in his work.He introduced plain earthy language and critical study of power struggles in Italian connection. Basile sha rosy similar views on power and civility. (Zipes, 2006). Even form this early stage, fairy tales s captivate evermore been connected to power, social class and gender stereotyping. Both Straparola and Basile recognised that Italian principalities were being damaged through family conflicts, the change in commerce and apportion and war. They used fairy tales as a writte n office of broaching their link over the unexpected change of norms on adult male behaviour. Although time passes and things change, fairytales have not dated.The unspotted fairy tales that Basile and Straparola once told ar allay being told to children today all over the world. Thanks to the origination of the fairytale by Straparola and Basil we still rely on its narrative strategy to let on how dangerous it is to think that we live in more civilized and infract world than the realms of the past. (Zipes, 2006) For centuries new children have been enthralled by fairy tales. Tales of witches, wizards, princes and princesses, fairy godmothers and villains alike have been influencing how children view the world around them.This appears particularly genuine in the teddy of young girls, with whom these stories seem to resonate. However living in a contemporary 22nd century society the question unavoidably to be posed are these stories, written centuries ago, still provid ing a applicable and realistic exhibital of effeminate role models to the youth of today? Or are these folktales of prince wizardly and happily ever afters corrupting ideals from infancy and setting these young girls up for disappointment? Women today have surface along a bureau from their 18th century counterparts.Women have fought for years to be able to vote, work, raise children as a lone parent and supply a house see. Women have gained their right to respect and in numberence in a world that is no longer dominated my males. These rights are marked as historic events that women are extremely proud of. However still today, when educating children we use fairy tales as means of communicating, although sometimes indirectly, the role women should play in lifespan. For example, in fairy tales, the concept of mantrap is outlined very causely. kayo is expressed as a physical necessity.The tameing lady in the typical fairy tale is usually described and illustrated as a woman possessing features considered physically attractive to males, a thin figure, glowing skin, red lips, symmetrical facial features and well attired. In the classical tale of sleeping dish antenna Aurora has red lips as red as the red red rose fair skin, blue eyes long flaxen hair and an impossibly thin figure. This seems to be the universal concept of what peach tree is among all the fairy tales that Walt Disney have produced. This image of strike is in stark(prenominal) contrast to the reality in which we live into today.This depiction of the need for beauty is not the only damaging stereotype conveyed in fairy tales. sort of of being able to defend and stick up for themselves, women are forever relying on males to rescue them. Whether it be the delvesome prince charming or the have figure, a male, nevertheless is everlastingly there to save the day and annunciation whatever predicament has arisen in order for all involved unpack the villain to live happily ever after . The act of stereotyping serves as a short-cut to the way that the majority of the population views our culture.Therefore, though we skill not completely agree with the way in which gender roles are repre displaceed in these fairy tales, it still serves us well in a sense that we might gain a basic consciousness of what it means to be a male and what it means to be a female. Whether in person accepted or rejected, the notion of males being dominant and females being accessory has been deeply embedded into our cultures view of the gender roles. The villain is too an interesting stereotype which is evident in all fairy tales.Villains are giveed as ugly, malicious, jealous components. They are almost always characterised by being an evil gradation-mother, wicked queen, a witch or an evil mother in law. The job of the villain in a fairytale is to make life difficult for the leading protagonist. The queen in Basiles version of juggle fair is described as a murderous and unnatu ral, unsexed anomaly who tricks Talia (Warner ,1995,p. 220). However, evil they are, they always play a powerful female role in all the fairy tales I have chosen to discuss.To consider whether the portrayals of women in classic fairy tales are genuine role models for young girls, I give be examining and referring to the quest books Cinderella , sweetie and the Beast, The Little Mermaid, quiescency salmon pink, Snow White and the seven dwarfs, Mulan and Shrek. surely by examining classic fairy tales it is obvious that the central female character is continuously presented as being beautiful. In the classic tale of Beauty and the Beast, the news report begins with Once upon a time there lived a rich merchant with three pretty daughters.The youngest was the prettiest of the there and she was called beauty. From the very stock of the story, emphasis is put on how beautiful Belle is in the fairytale. The fact that the lead character is appreciated for her beauty alone speaks mul titudes about the message the story gives out to its reader and indeed to young girls. There is the threatened jointure of an almost supernaturally beautiful girl with a hideous monster. (Iona,Peter, 1980,p. 180) The fairytale puts emphasis on how beautiful Belle is and how ugly the beast is. withal Sleeping Beauty had a beautiful face and she thought beautiful thoughts, Snow White grew into a beautiful woman, when Cinderella arrived at the ball everyone wondered Who is that beautiful girl? and The Little Mermaid was the youngest, and most beautiful, daughter of Mer King. The initial portrayal of these women is innocent and positive. whatsoever young girl would aspire to possess such favourable qualities and attractiveness. be beautiful and falling in love with prince charming, then living happily-ever-after, seems to be the most important outcome of these fairy tales.But the question we have to direct ourselves is -are these harmless tales instilling false ideas of what life is like for children? One may not think that reading such biased material to a child could possibly have a lasting effect on their perceptions of how one should conform in society, however according to Bettelheim A child trusts what the fairy tale tells, because its world view accords with his own (Bettelheim, 1991, p. 45) The fairytale is so convincing to the child, as the tale matches the childs thinking, approach and judgement of the world.Bettelheim states these fairytales direct the childs own thinking about his own development, permitting the child to draw his own conclusion, yet since some classic fairy tales are known to display gender stereotyping, we must take aim ourselves, what implication this has on childrens perspectives of specific gender roles in society if the child is drawing his/her own conclusion after reading the fairy tale. fag tales portray a black and white view of society. Males are frequently portrayed as the head of the family, who are physically an d emotionally strong, and whose sphere exists outside of the home.Females are frequently portrayed as parasitical, physically and emotionally weak, and belong inside the home. This depiction of the male and female roles sends a very false and blinding message to its audience. On the other hand it tramp be argued that stereotypes are a part of life/society. The act of stereotyping serves as a short-cut to the way that the majority of the population views our culture. Therefore, though we might not completely agree with the way in which gender roles are represented in these fairy tales, it still gives a basic understanding of what it means to be a male and what it means to be a female.A similar theme seems to run through all the fairy tales I have chosen. All of the female protagonists are punished in some way as a will of their physical fortune. In Snow White, the evil queen wants the fairest of them all so a search is sent for Snow White to be killed. Snow White ends up reaveing , tidying and homework for seven dwarfs in the forest as payment for letting her stay. Similarly in Cinderella, the beautiful Cinderella is made servant to her bill mother and step sisters. Cinderella is isolated in the house and ignored by her step sisters and step mother.Sleeping Beauty is cursed from the moment she was born as a result of her beauty. A wicked witch was furious that she wasnt invited to the babys banquet so she put a spell on her to endure asleep for a hundred years. Belle in Beauty and the Beast go backs herself in a similar situation she is one of three sisters and the only one who cleans and cooks as a result of her misfortune. The women all have a chassis of traits in common. All of the female characters I have mentioned display admirable qualities.All of the women are kind and gentle but these female characters are viewed as being passive and submissive. These women depend on the male characters in the tales to be either protected or to be happy. This sen ds out an extremely negative stereotype to young readers, presenting that womens job in life is cook, clean and wait for Prince Charming to come in order to be happy. harmonize to Bettelheim it is childs life experiences that teach the child the right manner, he goes on to say when children are young, it is literature that carries such information best. (Tartar, 1999, p. 69) If this is the case then children reading heavily stereotyped tales from an early age will impact their manner and possibly the way they view the gender roles. Bettelheim also states that a childs mind is animistic and children in particular young girls are vulnerable to believing that being beautiful and meeting prince charming are key goals and will result in a happily ever after. West (2004) argues that books are such a major influence in the formation of childrens determine and carriages that adults need to monitor approximately every word that children read. (Hunt, 1999, p. 5) If this is the case, sho uld we be reading child fairy tales? It was the feminist movement that brought a closer examination of gender roles in fairytales. In Lissa Pauls article she argues that While childrens literature is predicated on the notion that children are essentially blank or naive and are in need of protection and instruction, then issues of suitability or ineptness are important. (Hunt, 1999, p121) This idea seems to be evident in feminists attitudes with regards the lead female character in fairy tales.Feminists feel that these women over rely on their beauty and each wait, in some way or another, for their Prince Charming to come rescue them. According to Lissa Pauls article, while discussing Cinderella, she states that Most of us- women, children and feminist critics, I imagine dont want to be seen valuing riches. Or princes for that matter (Hunt, 1999, p. 112). However many of the fairy tales chosen for the essay have the common theme of a male hero rescuing or saving the female heroin e in the story.They solely depend on the prince to come save them in the end. In Cinderella her family feels she is lowly to them and so she serves as a slave in her own home. They were very stinging to her and ordered her about from morning until night. She is too weak to stand up to them and so waits for a prince to come rescue her. Similarly in Sleeping Beauty she sleeps for one hundred years before a prince comes and rescues her, in Beauty and the Beast, Belle finally ends up with a handsome prince the beast disappeared and in his place stood a handsome prince.In Snow White after she ate the poison apple, she lay peacefully in her coffin until a prince knock down in love with her and rescued her she opened her eyes and on beholding the handsome prince she fell in love with him. There is evidently a strong portrayal of physical beauty in these fairy tales and these images of the female protagonist gives a very weak and negative display of womens abilities and aspirations. On the contrary, however, a very interesting aspect is in Beauty and the Beast. Belle demonstrates having a mind of her own compared to her female counterparts whose main focus was to find their handsome prince using their fair looks.Belle looks beyond physical appearance and recognises the impregnable man in the Beast she has not mistaken a tender lover for a monster, like Psyche, or failed to see a goodness man beneath the surface.. (Warner, 1995,p. 307) This follows her gradual arousal of both attraction and grammatical gender for the Beast throughout the course of the fairytale until he unsurprisingly too turns into a handsome prince at the end. Beautys wooer has the appearance of a monster, and only after Belle has overcome her aversion for his vile shape advise the monster be seen to be a handsome prince. (Opie, 1980, p. 180) The notion of being socially stable is put forward to us. Once these women are rescue by their Prince Charming and fall in love with him, they are re warded with a luxurious life as a princess and will ultimately live happily ever after. The Little Mermaid was written by Hans name Andersen in 1836 and was released by Walt Disney in 1989. This fairytale was hoped to go against the grain and portray a leading women who wasnt submissive or passive but strong and independent and good role model of young children.The tale is about a young teenage mermaid, called Ariel, who doesnt like her life under the sea and is much more fascinated by the human world. Regardless of her fathers warnings she exchanges her voice for legs with the evil witch to slip away three days on land. She must make Prince Eric fall in love with her and kiss her or else she becomes the sea witchs forever. The witch reassures her the graceful form, the modest gait and speaking eyes. With such as these, it will easy to infatuate a vain human male (Anderson, 1993,p. 8). It is clear from that short summary that the tale still managed to stereotype women. The message being sent out is that if Ariel relies on her beauty alone she will last the Prince to fall in love with her. Trites 1990 said, Undoubtedly, feminists have criticized Ariel because she seems to have little competition beyond getting her prince. (http//charlottesmedia. blogspot. com/) The story of Mulan helped change the perception of women in Fairy tales but still managed to imply a message that women are inferior to men.Mulan is no ones trophy and to me is the first groundbreaking Disney photographic film to show a woman to be capable of taking the same(p) roles of men. The story is based on a Chinese myth about a woman who saves china from the Huns. She goes to fight in the war kinda of her father and displays traits that are stereotyped as only being male. She is a strong and a courageous woman and breaks social boundaries and expectations. However, Mulan is similar to Belle in Beauty and the Beast, as she too isnt seen as acceptable in society and this idea of gender oblig ations is evident.Women should be a homemaker and a wife, not cleaver and strong. Finally the film Shrek, created in the 22th century and displays beauty in a antithetic way. Beauty is displayed on the inside in this new image of the princess, which I found to be really refreshing. The deuce leading characters are ogres. The film goes against the classical fairy tale characteristics. Princess Fiona is different from other princesses and does not wait for prince charming to rescue her. She is a dependent woman who is able to stand on her own two feet. She chooses Shrek as a husband and decides to live her own life as an ogre.This is a unique fairytale as Fiona overlooks physical beauty and is not saved by a male, which results in her having a better life. However she still does live her life as a princess. Unfortunately, many women today hold a princess attitude, and aspire to have a princess type of life. This attitude can be seen among some girls and young women. They often believ e that marrying well, especially financially, is desirable, so they can easily live the life of a princess. This may very well be an effect caused by the women that are presented to us in these fairy tales since early childhood.Certainly a clear progression can be seen with regards the representation of women between the 17th-18th century fairy tales (Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty) and the nineteenth -22nd century fairy tales (Mulan, Shrek). I do appreciate that the morals and values are changing in regard to fairytales in recent years. As a whole, however, In my opinion I think that the fairy tales discussed portray a negative stereotype to young children and are not good role models. According to Zipes We can continue to enjoy this harmless spare-time activity of telling classical fairytales to our children, not realising the possible harm or harmlessness. Zipes, 2006,p. 57) Bibliography Andersen, H. C. Fairy Tales The Little Mermaid, Bristol, Parragon Book Service Ltd, 1993. Bette lheim, B. The Uses of Enchantment The Meaning And Importance Of Fairy Tales, England, Penguin, 1991. Charlottes media blog. available at http//charlottesmedia. blogspot. com/ accessed on 14/4/2012 Hunt, peter. Childrens Literature, An illustrated History, Oxford, University Press,1995. Hunt, Peter. Understanding Childrens Literature, London, Routledge, 1999. Ladybird, Snow White And The 7 Dwarfs, Ladybird Ltd, 2005. Marsoli, L. A.Mulan, NY, blow Works, 1998. Opie, Iona Peter, The Classic Fairy Tales, USA, Oxford University Press, 1980. Soanes, Catherine, andAngus Stevenson. Concise Oxford English dictionary. New YorkOxford University Press,2012. Southgate, V. Beauty and the Beast, UK, Ladybird Books Ltd, 1988. Southgate, V. Cinderella, UK, Ladybird Books Ltd, 1982. Southgate, V. Sleeping Beauty, UK, Ladybird Books Ltd, 1984. Warner, M. Beast to the Blonde ,London, Vintage. 1995. Zipes, Jack. Fairy Tales and the Art of Subversion, New York, Routledge, 2006. Film Shrek, Disney, 2001 .

Monday, January 28, 2019

Achieve dramatic effect Essay

Act three is the turn point of the crucible. How does Arthur Miller require tensity and suspense to secure outstanding effect? The crucible was written in 1953 to highlight the atrocities of McCarthyism, the modern repeat to the capital of Oregon witch-hunts. Senator Joseph McCarthy was as determined to hunt out communists, as the Salem judges had been to hunt out witches. Like the Salem judges he sought to extr practise first confessions and then named of alleged associates. Refusal to denounce others in both communities could be punished as contempt of the committee or court therefore m any(prenominal) were forced into self-preservation and started to blame others to save themselves. just about of the crucible is centered on the court and theocracy. It was these strong religious beliefs that make the town of Salem, Massachusetts, particularly disrupted by the rumour of witchcraft. Salem was an intensely Puritan village whose religion frowned upon fun Christmas festivities were forbidden and holidays only meant that they moldiness focus even more time upon prayer and the church. This strict upbringing, without any fun, was partly to blame for the childrens crying out. The boredom they must have suffered led to their accusations so that they may be at the centralize of attention. The puritan religion at that time throve on fear of the inconvenience oneself and had an obsession with sin and damnation. Therefore any other justification for the girls demeanour was seen as contempt of the court.It wasnt until much later(prenominal) that mass-hysteria was considered and concluded to be the explanation if the girls demeanour. The cause of Mass-hysteria in this case was the group of childrens boredom the reason for this is deucefold. Firstly it led to dancing and conjuring of spirits in the wood and secondly Abigail Williams boredom gave her a need for attention. Abigails accusing of several witches caused Betty to believe she saw the Devil and a gag a belief, such as this, is often the cause of Mass-hysteria it begins small with one somebody in hysteria (Abigail) but travels and inflicts more people and more people.Abigail Williams, a teenage girl, is the most powerful character in The Crucible. During the play she manages to adopt control over all but one of the community. However, this person, John Proctor, subjected to Abigails power in the past as we find out later on and is the cause of much irony in act three. Abigail is reverend Parris niece, his beliefs and his views of witchcraft change as the play progresses. He goes from being only against witchcraft and tries in to avoid the subject to trying to convict many an(prenominal) witches and those who try to stop the accusations in act three. I think that Parris does this is mainly for self-preservation.The first act of self-preservation in the play was made by Abigail, she incriminate Tituba, Parris slave. I think that she blamed Tituba because she saw it as a trend out. I think that when wring grabbed her up close and asked if she called the Devil she replied I never called him Tituba, Tituba because it released the pressure polish off of her. The pressure being released and put onto Tituba meant that Abigail was desolate and was non under questioning.The courts procedures were very strict in Salem. There were two judges, judge Hathorne and deputy-governor Danforth. Danforth strongly believes in the court and is stubborn in his beliefs he thinks that people are scared of the court because they are guilty. He wint listen to any reason that may lead him off his path. When Giles Corey proposes his alluviation to save his wife (which said that Putnam manipulated the girls) is proposed in act three, Danforth sticks to the elan he believes is right, the court. He says that he must go through the suitable procedure and that he must submit his evidence in congruous affidavit.Miller puts Giles deposition in the play for two reasons. I think t hat the first is to show how difficult it is to be heard and that they could not protest their innocence, this foreshadows the later events. I think the second reason is to create time for the judges to read it. This time creates tension as the earshot are waiting to see what will happen with Mary warrens deposition, which we hunch about from act two.Arthur Miller builds up the tension in act three, he uses the tension of the conflict between Danforth, Parris and Hale near the begin and throughout. Theses are three men with different beliefs, rules and procedures, to achieve dramatic effects. He does this by using the conflict to give foretaste in the audience that the court will crumble. Later on in act three Miller creates tension by putting Danforth on the spot. He does this by putting Proctor on the scene with his deposition of the evidence of Mary Warren.Again Miller creates tension because we already know from act one about Marys character. She is a shy, nave and subse rvient girl who wanted to be honest from the start. In act one she says Abby, weve got to tell. We must tell the truth, Abby however Abigails strong, threatening behaviour stopped her from owning up, we wonder whether Abigail will do this again.

The Importance of Drug Testing in Workplaces

As widespread medicate part is on the rise, many employers stomach begun to worry ab reveal the performance of their employees. Absenteeism, injuries, loss of productivity, employee morale, larceny and fatalities argon just some of the causes of medicine use in the workplace. The root word of do doses interrogation among workers has developed from societys concern over a sensed increase in the use of doses and the relation between drug use and impairment, with resultant risks to the worker, fellow workers and the public. As early as 1987, 21% of employers had instituted drug- examing programs.Employers stand begun to think that mass drug tests are the answer to their problems. What many of these employers dont agnize is that there are many problems that surround drug test at work. One of the biggest of these problems is whether or not it is constitutional to conduct drug tests on the employees. Employers fail to educate themselves with established or late laws about drug testing in the workplace and about human rights. Also, mass, low-cost coating tests may not be reli able or valid. Alcohol testing does not differentiate casual drinking from intoxi preservet dependence or alcoholism. drug tests can create an untrustworthy environment for the employees. There are better ways to address essence poke fun. dose testing in the workplace is an important issue for all of Canadas labour force, regardless(prenominal) if its youre initiatory job or if youve had a steady job for 30 years. many an(prenominal) employees, who have had to subjugate themselves to degrading and demeaning drug tests, feel that these tests mess up their constitutional rights. It is an infringement on their privacy. In order for the tests to make surely there is no specimen tampering there must be an administrator present to oversee every action the employee makes during their drug test.For tests such(prenominal)(prenominal) as hair and breath testing this does present a major problem, alone for urine tests men and women alike are disturbed by the direct observation of their urine collection. Unfortunately, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms applies only to the laws and actions of the federal official and provincial governments and their agencies. It does not apply to the policies and actions of private employers. The Charter therefore does not protect private sector employees from un campaignable drug testing.It is necessary to offer that currently an employer can terminate an employees job if the employee has been using outlaw(prenominal) drugs and alcohol, alone only if such use is not considered a disability. Alcohol or drug addiction can be viewed as a tangible and/or mental disability. In Ontario, the Ontario Human Rights, Citizenship, and Multiculturalism Act prohibit usage discrimination based on disability. Employers have a responsibility to have employees who are disabled. Drug testing has not been proven to be against t he Canadian Human Rights Commission.In order to institute a drug testing polity into a company which complies with human rights legislation, an employer must be able to demonst localize that the testing is related to job performance, and not just substance abuse. Many employees feel that drug testing is a way of discerning against people who might have a drug and/or alcohol disability. An display case of such discrimination is constitute in Entrop v. Imperial crude oil Ltd. The Ontario Board of Inquiry found that Imperial Oil Limited discriminated against Martin Entrop, a senior operator at the Sarnia Refinery, because of a disability.The Board of Inquiry found that under a new Alcohol and Drug Policy interpose in 1992, Imperial Oil employees in safety-sensitive positions were required to notify commission if they currently had or had previously had a substance abuse problem. later on Mr. Entrop heard that this policy was coming into effect he informed his employer that he had had an alcohol problem about ten years earlier, that he had tended to(p) Alcoholics Anonymous, and that he had abstained from using alcohol since 1984.Mr. Entrop had been an employee for seventeen years and he had had no problems at work that were related to substance abuse, but Imperial Oils policy required that Mr. Entrop be immediately removed form his current position. This example clearly shows that it is discriminatory to terminate a persons job because of a knightly or present disability and that there are constitutional matters involve with drug testing in the workplace. The lab procedure is a bit invasion of privacy. Urinalysis reveals not only the presence of illegal drugs, but excessively the existence of many other physical and medical conditions including pregnancy.Drug testing is an invasion of privacy that is to be abhorred and it is clearly against our constitutional rights. Drug testing is designed to detect and punish conduct that is usually assiduous in off-duty and off employers premises, in other words, in private. There is oft confusion about the trueness of drug tests. In fact claims of billions of dollars wooly in employee productivity are based on guesswork, not substantial evidence. Urine tests cannot test for drugs directly. They test for traces of substances taken before the test which are no longer active in your system but can still be detected.The close accurate methods of urine analysis are beat-consuming and expensive, and even then can be wrong at least 10% of the time. Even though these drug tests are the well-nigh accurate, more often then not employers opt for a less accurate drug test because the more accurate ones are overly much of an expense for the company. These cheaper drug tests often have an error rate of 30%, which means that 30% of all people that take these drugs tests are falsely acc employ and may be fired from their jobs. Also, traces of legal medicines, such as cough syrups, nasal sprays a nd eardrops can be confused with those of illegal drugs.Even the poppy seeds found in baked goods can produce a positive result for heroin. Furthermore, drug tests are not work-related because they do not measure impairment that occurs during work hours. A positive drug test only shows that a drug was taken at some time in the past. Also, the drug test does not distinguish between episodic and habitual use, the same is also true with alcohol testing. Another reason that drug testing isnt very reliable is the fact that drug testing does not even detect all drug users.This is true because most stronger drugs such as cocaine do not last in the users blood stream as long as someone who has used marijuana for example. This means that the weekend user of cocaine is much more likely than the weekend user of marijuana to pass a weekday drug test. Also drug tests may not reveal very recent drug use. For example, a worker who does not smoke marijuana on a regular basis decides to smoke marij uana in the middle of the work day, a drug test may come back negative because mot luxuriant time has passed for drug metabolites to appear in the urine.With all these factors working against the accuracy of drug tests, not to mention the occasional error of the people who regale the specimens at the lab and the false-negatives that occur when an employee deliberately decides to sabotage a drug test, it is hardly worth it for an employer to go through with the trouble of a drug tests when the true drug users, the ones that are harmful to the company, are not pointed out anyways. There are better ways to address substance abuse in the workplace then to rely on the very punic method of drug and alcohol testing.These ways are more cost- useful, time-effective and have a much better impact in the workplace also they do not raise the same privacy issues that drug tests do. An effective alternative to drug testing is to train supervisors to confront, and refer impaired employees to Emp loyee assistance Programs or other intervention programs. This strategy leads to increased employee acceptance of handling and a subsequent improvement in overall job performance.

Friday, January 25, 2019

Disraeli’s second ministry Essay

Disraelis second minis strive deserves the title a great put righting ministry demonstrate how far you agree with this find in relation to Gladstone archetypical Ministry.A great reforming ministry is a presidential term which manages to radically alter the semipolitical and social scene, aiming to deal with the most pressing problems and creating a long consideration legacy whereby later ministries aim to protect and improve what has been achieved or else of hard to alter radically. This is why it becomes clear that Gladstone ministry and not Disraelis should be considered a great reforming ministry.The aims of both ministries were radically different. Gladstones aims for his ministry when he came into power in 1867 were to try and execute a more effective and meritocratic order of magnitude which outback(a) privileges and advocated individualistic self-reliance. This ideology of beliefs were formed due to Gladstone long held religious beliefs which drove him and in the liberal ideas of comparability of opportunity, tolerance and individualism he saw the best system to try and create a social club derriered on Christian morals. end-to-end all his lawmaking Gladstone aimed for the fair and just decision explaining his desire to try and pacify Ireland. This is in contrast to Disraelis aims as bloom of y erupth Minister from 1874. Disraeli had managed to finally get the conservatives elected after being step to the fore of power for over ten years, and he achieved this through radically modernising the right party which was represented in his Tamworth manifesto speech where he proclaim the aims of the Conservative party were to protect institutions and traditions, strengthen the empire and alleviate the frame of the people.However Disraeli never had a clear agenda of reforms before he came into power instead his main aims were ensuring the continuation of power for the Conservative power, this meant Disraeli aimed not to disrupt his key sup port base of the middle and top(prenominal) level and focused on reducing taxes. Additionally although due to his promise of alleviating the learn of the people he was forced to create social legislation to checker minimal government intervention he aimed to execute the bets permissive give out their imp carry and focussed on areas which were non- contentious and where mild reforms could be implemented. This contrast bounds the differing oppositions the twain ministries cute to achieve.Gladstones ministries reforms had a substantial imp dissemble. The 1870 education act with the setting up of board schools to complement the existing structure of military volunteer religious schools reflect Gladstones desire to try and create equality of opportunity and to encourage individual self-reliance. This reform became the rattling foundations of the involved school system which is present today, reflecting the long term impact this reform had. Additionally Gladstone introduced key reforms to remove privilege and create a more efficient government and soldiery with the 1871 civil service reforms which meant accession to the civil service could just now be achieved through examination and the army reforms that were carried out between 1870-1872 whereby the act of purchase was abolished and instead officer sieve could only be achieved through merit and amount of time genital organ would have to spend in the army was reduced to encourage higher(prenominal) uptake.This reflects the impact Gladstone was trying to achieve he didnt uncertain away from attacking key sectors of power within connection because he believed it was morally right and fair to remove privilege from the upper classes. This was particularity important for a working class which aimed to be free individuals who wanted the vote and an equal footing. Whilst Disraelis legislation although Important was hampered due to Disraelis desire to minimise the impact of reform and to only focus on non-controversial areas. The 1875 Artisans dwelling act is a clear example of weak legislation, the act meant that councils could compel owners of slums to carry on their property and allow the council to knock-down the slums and then sell the land to private building firms. However the legislation was permissive so the council didnt have to ensure slums were removed and it required councils to give wages to the landowners and so by the end of Disraelis term the act had only been used in 10 councils making its impact very mild.Whilst different acts such as the 1875 Agriculture holdings act show Disraeli is unable to make truly effective legislation because he wishes to protect the power base of the upper class. The act should of ensured that tenants that improve their land receive compensation barely Disraeli made the act permissive and stated that if there was a assure in contract which stated the landowner didnt have to leave compensation then the landowner didnt have too. D ue to this over again the impact of the legislation was minor. Other legislation shows Disraelis opportunistic nature and aim to keep power such as the 1875 conspiracy and surety of property act which reformed a piece of Gladstonian legislation which proscribed peaceful picketing this act allowed peaceful picketing which Disraeli hoped would give the Conservative support from the commerce unions, to try and weaken the threat from the Liberal party.Even when Disraeli produced legislation which was aimed at alleviating the condition of the people such as the 1874 Factory Act which meant that by law women and children werent allowed to be made to work more than night club and half hours in a day but deliberately avoided the absolute majority of the working population which was male and although the legislation had the impact of forcing factories to close to begin with which effected male working hours as well it wasnt the intention. boilersuit examining the legislation shows th e difference in impact the two different ministries legislation had with Gladstone causing a huge impact whilst Disraelis demo only a very minor effect focusing on refining Gladstone previous legislation or reforming on very specific small issues to try and gain support.However both ministries were damage though, for all Gladstone large and influential reforms he was voted out in 1874 and although Disraeli aimed not to lose any support he also was voted out in 1880. The reason why Gladstone was voted out were that his legislation was so wide ranging it impact on nearly every sector of society and as such Gladstone also lost his wide spectrum of support. The upper classes disliking his aims of efficiency feeling that they were breaking the traditional power structure of society against their favour. The middle and working classes were effected by Gladstones controversial legislation which was highly unpopular at the time such as the Licensing Act of 1872 and the 1871 Criminal Amend ment Act. Both of these act reflects sometimes Gladstone misjudgement on what was beneficial for the people and how to create a fairer society.Also Gladstone failed in one of his key aims which was to pacify Ireland but he was the one of the few politicians who was truly trying to find a workable solution instead of coercion. Whilst Disraeli was voted out not because he had made a massive impact but because he was Prime Minister whilst the economy entered recession, this meant that his mild beatnik had even less impact and his expensive imperialistic aims were highly controversial. So due to the recession Disraeli failed to alleviate the condition of the people and his other aims meant his government appeared to stall resulting in his popularity dropping.Overall although his legislation was occasionally flawed the boilers suit improvement and effect that Gladstones ministry had on the country reflect a great reforming ministry. Gladstones Liberal beliefs in meritocratic and indivi dual society have become corner stones of British society reflecting the ministries long term impact and legislation such as the licensing act although unpopular at the time has only been amended never removed by later governments as they see the positive impacts of the restriction of alcohol. This reflected against Disraelis achievement of mildly modify Gladstones legislation and avoiding ungainly decision domestically or trying to alter the status quo shows that his ministry cannot be considered a great reforming ministry. As such I disagree with the view that Disraelis government was a great reforming government instead leaning that it was his predecessor Gladstone that was clearly the great reforming ministry.

Thursday, January 24, 2019

Principles Of Communication In An Adult Social Care Setting

guide two trends how good communion brush off affect relationships in an adult social wish well setting amid somebodys victimization the service, their occupyrs, colleagues and other practitioners. By having effective discourse within a service you advise encourage active participation from the service users, carers, colleagues and from each oneone else apply the service. If effective converse is apply, you are satisfactory to promote empathy and reach a shared understanding.Identify three ways of finding out the communication and style inescapably of an somebody Asking the private You would be today be able to establish their most effective way of communicating. By detect the individual You would be able to visually see if they need any caution to expire Asking friends and family They will be able to set forth you of the most effective way to communicate and the most preferred by the individual Looking at the individuals care plan You would be immediatel y informed off the preferred method of communication and the way in which is best to communicate with the individual pull three factors to consider when promoting effective communication on that point are many different factors that need to be considered when using effective communication. You need to establish whether the person needs any aids to encourage them when communicating. Once you gift established this, you need to find the best manageable way to communicate with them. The way in which you approach that person, does your body actors line need to be considered or your basintillate of voice? This could be so you make the person feel as comfortable as manageable to get word you they are reading your body speech communication correctly.The environment whitethorn need to be adjusted, for example , loud noises or flashing lights could unhinge the person ,which could lead to ineffective communication. AV Describe three vocal and three no verbal communication methods and styles that a social care worker may use in an adult social care setting. Verbal Vocabulary, knowing what vocabulary to use and non to use needs to be remembered as the person you are speaking to may not understand. Verbal The tone of your voice is very principal(prenominal) as the individual could misinterpret what you are trying to say.Verbal You need to ensure you are both speaking in the remediate language. Non Verbal The use of written lyric poem is beneficial to communicate with someone who is deaf or someone who is futile to talk. Non Verbal The use of body language is important as this understructure be misinterpreted by other people. Non Verbal Eye contact is important as it washbowl reassure the other person that you are hearing to them. Avi Explain why it is important to answer to an individuals reactions during communication When you are communicating with someone it is important that you reply the correct way using different methods.This can reassu re the individual that you understand them and can show that you are showing empathy. If you did not show any solution to that individual, it could lead them to becoming frustrated or distressed as they may feel you do not understand them and they are enable to start out what they are trying to say. They may feel they cannot communicate with you which could lead to wish of confidence with in you. Avii Explain how an individuals downplay can influence the way they communicate. The individual that you are communicating with may simply speak their native language.Gestures that they use may be different. They may respond to touching for example holding someones hand of hugging. The tone of voice that is used may be different to what they are used to. Aviii Identify three examples of barriers to communicate and develop how you could over come each barrier. A Noisy environment, which could distress the individual. The environment should be adjusted thence prior to your meeting w ith the individual. Communication Aids, if not used to could prevent communication You need to prevent which communication aids are needed.You need to check whether they are working, does the individual need a medical review, is that the correct aid for that person. Not bring home the baconing overflowing time to listen, this could stop the individual being able to communicate their needs Finding time to listen to the individual , if they gestate a while to communicate , ensure you have freed up enough time, ensure you are being patient and are aware. Aix Describe two strategies you could use to clarify misunderstandings. Once you have communicated with an individual you could respond with a summarisation to clarify that you have understood.If you have not this could allow the person to correct you. If you are ensure of what someone has tried to communicate with you, you could seek clarification from another person involved with the individual. Ax A social care worker wants to enable more effective communication with individuals using the service. Explain how they could access extra stick out or services that may be helpful. You could seek extra abet from the individuals family and friends, they may be able to help with culture on the preferred method of communication and why they like using this to help you understand.Support could include attending GP appointments with that person regarding their communication needs. utter to their social worker who may be able to help with background selective information. Attending support groups to see how the individual communicates with other people. Speech and language services may be of help to educate you with different techniques and methods of communication. explanation services may help if you do not speak the individuals language. Task B Bi How would you explain the term confidentiality to Hannah?I would explain to Hannah that confidentiality is that Hannahs information should be treated confidently a t respectively at all times. That Hannahs confidential information can be shared when it is needed to ensure effective care is delivered. Also, that Hannah has the right to object to her confidential information being shared and this will be respected. Before any information has been shared to anyone involved within her care, this would have been explained and she would have needed to agree to her information being shared to clear her health.There may be times when there are other obligations and duties that preponderate the obligations to confidently. This would purely be for the benefit of Hannahs care. To reassure Hannah, I would explain that all staff have to follow policies and procedures on a quotidian basis ,to ensure confidently rules are followed and her information is treated with respect. Bii Describe the possible tensions that may arise between telling others of Hannahs decisiveness and keeping this information totally confidently. Confidently could be scandaliseed as the persecute person could receive confidential information.Hannah could feel that her personal information is not being respected. There could be safeguarding issues as Hannahs health could be affected. Biii Describe ways to maintain confidentiality in day to day communication. When discussing an individual it is important that there are not people present who should not be. When passing on information it is vital that you check the identity of the person who is receiving the information. Always keeping written records safe and do not leave of absence files lying around for other people to access.When having private conversations always ensure you have privacy. Do not discuss person information outback(a) of work. Biv Explain when and how a social care worker should get advice nearly confidentiality. If you are unsure if you are passing on confidential information to the right people or need some clarification, you could refer to you confidentiality polity within your wor kplace for information and guidance. If you felt that you or someone else has breach confidentiality within your workplace you could seek help and advice from your line manager.

Wednesday, January 23, 2019

Article Rebuttal Essay

For the past 17 months, shown on all television news credit line across the United States. The case of George Zimmerman, and the shooting death of 17-year-old Trayvon Martin. Like every year, the media provide take a case and publicly turn the explanation into a circus. The rebuttal bind for this paper is a boloney pen by Oliver Knox of titled, Obama Trayvon Martin could find been me 35 years ago. Further discussion go out analyze the reliability, credibility, and asperity of the data used by Oliver Knox, and identify whatever logical fallacies in the argument. The article is about President Barack Obama making his source public comments on the George Zimmerman acquittal. The president stated that many African Americans intrust the proceeds and afterwardmath of the trial would have been different if Trayvon Martin had been white. The president ulterior stated that when he first heard about this story, his thoughts said this could have been his son (Obama, 20 13). Then getting more personal by dictum this could have been me 35 years ago (Obama, 2013). By using personal experiences, the president discussed his life as a boylike African American dealing with racism in the United States.I find that the reliability, credibility, and validity of this article and author Oliver Knox highly trusted, convincing, and believable. News articles written and posted by reports a straightforward message to their reference. Reporting stories down the middle, never likewise left or honest with the occasional bias author all for or against a particular topic. Keeping political views down to a minimal. This particular article matches other similar articles written on the resembling news story. Second, Oliver Knox wrote the story on the statements and words of the president as he addresses the American public. Third, the genuine author of this story is President Barack Obama himself, Oliver Knox just wrote his statement. The audience that th e president focused on in his address is the African American people. Using his own personal experiences, the president can relate to the on-going outrage of the African American public. President Obama feels the pain and disappointments of the outcome of the case. Because of this story first came out 17 months ago, many logical fallacies surfaced about this case. First, the media leaned toward a killing of an innocent young 17-year-old boy, minding his own business. Then showing a photo of this boy at the age of 12.Then here comes George Zimmerman, tone for trouble and looking for a fight by picking on a young African American boy. Would the story stay the corresponding if George Zimmerman was African American with the same outcome, the public will never recognize what happened that night. Meanwhile, the story set the tone for future stories about this case. Raising the scruple about race possess anything to do with the incident between George Zimmerman and Trayvon Martin. The logical fallacies of this article happened when President Obama expressed his concerns and personal experiences with the American people. This incident could good be him 35 years ago as a young person dealing with racism in America. Concern that African Americans signify that this case developed on race. A belief in the ratified system would have a different outcome if Trayvon were white. Even after juror number B37 came out stating that race had no issue to the outcome of the case.Both the jury and legal experts stated that Zimmerman and Trayvon made poor appraisal the night, which led to the death of Trayvon. Statements by the jury referring the only reason for Zimmermans acquittal because the way the stand your ground law is written. This article as well as provided nearly good highlighted points. The president supercharged his audience to support and encourage the young people of this country by helping them achieve and advance in life. To be more influential and gu ide them on the right track. If the young people do not have the support from family, friends, neighbors, and the community, who will help them stay on the righteous path (Obama, 2013).This news article written by Oliver Knox and other journalists in this country, reporting the feelings and concerns addressed by this nations leader. Stating the issue of racism still lives in the lives of some American people. Relating to his own personal feelings on racism and demanding change to inhibit these barriers. So the people, as a nation will never tell another George Zimmerman and Trayvon Martin case again.ReferencesKnox, O. (2013). Obama Trayvon Martin could have been me 35 years ago. Yahoo Retrieved from http// Millstone, K. (2013). Obama Trayvon Martin could have been me. MSN News. Retrieved from http//

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Emmett Till

Makayla Richards Mrs. Bonham Literature 101 5 contact 2013 Emmett bowl Research newspaper Three Major Points Lynching, Mississippi Trial, 1955 Thesis Statement The murder of Emmitt Till was a murder that changed America The Emmett Till Case, 1955 Chilling Circumstances The written report surrounding the death of Emmett Till provides chilling insight into the racism that dominated the South in the 1950s. Emmett was a fourteen-year-old Chicago native visiting his relatives in Mississippi.While out with his cousins and friends on the night of August 24, 1955 he allegedly whistled at a white woman in the grocery store owned by her husband. Stories vary as to what Till actually said or did. According to the woman Till grabbed her and made rude remarks. Some witnesses claimed that he only whistled at her. Still others assured that he made no problems at all, that he whistled continuously to control a speech defect. A Brutal Murder Roy Bryant considered his wifes life ruined by the i ncident. Several nights by and by the episode, Bryant, his half brother J. W.Milam, and possibly others kidnapped Emmett from his relatives house in the middle of the night. The dickens men beat him severely and, apparently saw that he had a picture of a white woman in his wallet, they shot Emmett and threw him in a nearby river. Several days later the body was found, and Bryant and Milam were charged with murder. A Surprise Verdict Mississippi politicians and newspapers condemned the murderers and promised justice. However, Mississippians became more defensive as the weeks passed. The Press attacked them with harsh judgment of racial violence in the South.The exceedingly publicized trial of the two men was charged with racial tension. black politicians and reporters from the North were treated horribly and were segregated in the courtroom. The prosecution was sick prepared, and the substance of the defense was the shocking claim that Till was not actually dead. The Killers Te ll the Truth The truth of what happened that night became public knowledge some(prenominal) months after the trial. William Bradford Huie, an Alabama journalist in Mississippi to report on the aftermath of the case, offered Bryant and Milam money to tell their story.Since the two could no longer be prosecuted for a crime of which they had already been accused of, they gladly told for a hire of how they had beaten and killed young Emmett Till. Huie reported what the killers told him in the January 24, 1956 issue ofLook magazine. at present publicly exposed as murderers, Bryant and Milam were shunned by the community, and both moved elsewhere within a year. Emmett Till in death became a idol for the civil rights movement, a symbol of the racial hatred African-Americans who had yet to thrash the situation.Citations MLA Citation Emmett Till. Anti Essays. 23 Mar. 2013 APA Citation Emmett Till. Anti Essays. Retrieved March 23, 2013, from the World Wide Web opening CitationThe Emmitt Till Case, 1955. Discovering U. S. History. Gale Research, 1997. Reproduced in Discovering Collection. Farmington Hills, Mich. Gale Group. October, 2001. Stephen J. Whitfield,A Death in the Delta The Story of Emmett Till(New York Free Press, 1988). Source DatabaseDiscovering U. S. History

Thursday, January 17, 2019

How a Christian might apply their beliefs Essay

In this, my second piece of coursework I will be looking at how a Christian might apply the beliefs that I just describe in A01 and will refer to specific situations of appointment to illustrate this.A Christian could apply the beliefs I recently menti geniusd in A01 through wholly different means. The most(prenominal) recent event of late to do with fight conflict is the Iraq war. ibn Talal Hussein Hussian we were told and could see was not a particularly gratifying human. I heard in papers and through television what he was doing to people and how he treated them. As Christians then in genius point of view from the Sermon on the Mount we should forgive this man for his wrong doings and lay off him repent his own sins.This belief of benevolence decelerates that should he recognise his wrongs and change his behaviour he could then be forgiven of his previous sins. Unfortunately Saddam was tolerant of the pain and suffering caused infra his regime and unwilling to recogni se a need to change his behaviour. yet once captured Saddam was not subjected to the torture that he imposed alone treated in a Christian and humane manner. Though as the passage states we should still maintain our Christian values and be forgiving, to wrestle the other cheek.An issue closer to home regarding conflict and Christianity is the bit in Yankee Ireland regarding the Catholics and Protestants. The two communities are constantly at war with one another over their faiths and in doing so are abandoning the sum total values of their religions. These two sets of people are following the eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth, way of transaction with their problems and issues, which has proven itself through twenty years of conflict to be ineffective and destructive. As again the passage from the Sermon on the Mount comes into effect and the two sides should realise that when a person of one side is killed they should not seek revenge and to kill, but to live and let live. Then t his may result in an end to the wildness and tragedies that are so often occurring.In the other effect towards Saddam Hussian issues we as Christians could most notice the quote of An eye for and eye and a tooth for tooth, from the Old Testament and do to Saddam the horrific things that we hear of him doing. non many Christians, today I believe see this way of dealing with things. More to the point would not be really able as out generation of law and order would just not allow it.When people saw Saddam Hussian damaging an empire and country most I would have believed that they were angry and human instinct gets the better of belief. It is a natural feeling to become angry and upset with something or somebody. And this unite with believing that it is right to acknowledge the passage from the Old Testament results in terrible effects to peoples lives. Also this relates to the Wars going on around Northern Ireland. The two religions are constantly battling each other. We have seen the results of this situation and thither is no justice to the trauma and deaths that are carried out.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Preservation of the environment by Christians Essay

all over the years, there has been an emergence of a new discipline of study which touches the fundamental inter spellion of religion and ecology following the milieual crisis that has hit the globe. Theologians from all ghostlike background establish acknowledged that it is their wholesome responsibility to take guard of nature as it is responsibility from God for make to obligatory electric charge for the Earth (Max et al 2005).According to the bible, the entire creation which includes nature has been pathetic for long. Out this bargon fact, several theologies to restore certain elements of the Earth, kind-hearted bes and bionomic oriented approach of God have been introduced (David, Bart 104). This paper then explores the dimensions of religious concept and attitude on nature and the religious contact in purlieual crisis. All this will be based on Toulmin model of argument (see figure 1) showing how Christians use the systematic port of reasoning to argue their contri bution to milieual conservation and restoration.Christians approaches to economise the environmentChristians believe that they owe to God a task to rule and conserves the environment and natural resources stewardly in line with the conservation ethics in consistence with the Toulmin model of argumentation, Christians have identified the major environmental issues that typeface the world today as rising from the environmental tension among human behavior that facilitate environmental degradation and the legitimate post of the civil government to preserve the environment (Rogers 205).Therefore, issues of the environment are cosmos examined by Christians in consideration to the limits of the environment to stand certain human impact without being destroyed, the need of change in the behaviors of  human being that adversely degrade the environment and the manipulation of the government  in environment  conservation (Larsson 2001). In strict terms, the evangelical posi tion on matters to do with environmental preservation arises from the strong endorsement of individual responsibility as well as governmental actions in line with obligations towards God and the society. chase this argument, the church building organizations came up with varied resolutions to help the environment be uncontaminating and safe for those living now and the future generation (Angela 2001).However, to preserve the environment, be must be incurred hence it is a daunting task for this church organizations to solicit for funds to facilitate their contributions to the entire process of environmental conservation.The eldest action towards conserving the ecological system, Christians have resolved to disseminate reading of environmental degradation to the masses of people beginning with their own members an extending the information alfresco their religious confines (Max et al 2005). The dissemination of this information is done done a variety of media, which includes c hurch organizations publishing newsletters about the need to preserve the environment, organize trip and incorporate the message of ecological degradation and extenuation measure or just practically get involved in local conservation.A religious campaign for forest conservation is a good example of this action oriented approach in the coupled States of America. It is a mathematical group of churches and denominations that are brought together by the common lodge in for conserving forests in a religious context (Garry 2003). It is logical enough that information is power. If people have information on the dangers of environmental degradation and what to do to help the situation, they would take appropriate steps to help correct the situation.Absolutely, this becomes a practical conservational action that is pegged on environmental education which follows the Toulmin model because it gives register on the deplorable state of the environment and reasons on the need to act though w ith speed (Peter 2005).In addition, Christian communities have placed fury cross cultural corperation that seeks to enhance individual involved in environmental issues guided by religious tenets.They basically aim at nurture awareness on issues of agriculture and look at them from the biblical front. unsophisticated Christian fellowship in the join Kingdom is a representative example of this action being taken by Christians to restore the environmental purity (Eugene et al 2007). Groups of environmentally minded people join the group and equip people with the knowledge to responsibly and with integrity in 5the scientific practices. They hold conferences as well as seminar and challenge people to have a go at it up to the faith of reflecting about nature and making their churches, models of sustaining Gods creation of which nature is part of (Garry 2003).Still on, Several churches in the fall in Kingdom are entering into partnerships with Royal Agricultural society of England and the drift foundation in the US to ideally empower rural Christians in meeting their socio-economic needs in a wise way and also conserving the Africas ecosystems. Such approach is logical because there is the underlying validation for the need to preserve the environment and this as evidently in accord to the Toulmin model of argument (Rogers 258).Eventually Christians achieve their objectives because after all is utter and done, they would have evoked environmental stewardship through action sand knowledge which comes with the church- initiated schoolman programs and community education. Organizations on the fore front of this action approach are the California Interfaith power and light California in The United States (Larsson 2001). All these is about promoting energy conservation, renewable energy, energy efficiency and so ensuring good health and sufficient energy for all.Environmental protection is some(prenominal) a religious and scientific enterprise. Care must be taken when coming up with actions to help conserve the environment because, the civil societies have their own formulations that have political basis  on the conservation of the environment  and so, church organizations must be careful so as non t provoke the governmental standing orders (Angela 2001).In the United States, St Joan of liberation has desirable plans to help us connect our faith and spirituality with the reek of duty and justice to the Earth, its wholesome systems and its creations at large. Individual church ministries, college fellowship and the interested religious fraternity calls for the stewards to help Gods creations in the love of Jesus commanded us to love. This organization coordinates efforts of the church to promote understanding and responsibility in areas of socio-economic and environmental issues (Max 2oo5).In addition, several church organizations provides speakers to talk on environment in general and also materials more often than not on spirituality and ecology. In such programs changes in the climate as well environmental abuses are highlighted with emphasis on church members to hold to selfless courage and moral authority to foster ecological protection. destructionIt is evident that chritians today have embraced constructive approaches to help avert the umteen harms being done on the environment. It serves as a wake up call especially  the ecological problems if not addressed have remote fetching effects that only man will feel adversely since he is the one endowed with the responsibility to take care of the world and all that is in it. The goals of Christians in this mission are aimed at dowery people around the world be it Christians or non-Christians to recognize their role in being   good stewardship Gods creation and free emphasizing on the globalization of alternative ways towards unity in diversity of faith and cultural orientation (Peter 2005).

Tuesday, January 15, 2019


Remember, these argon brief issuelines of my lectures and you be responsible for taking relegate nvirtuosos, as questions allow come from my discussion comments that give meaning to those points. During lectures I leave behind discuss some background schooling you do non deficiency for the test, which means the other issues I discuss atomic number 18 fair gamy for the exam. This Is a major Incentive to come to programme, pay attention, and take not bad(predicate) class notes. If you do not take notes, how can you remember my comments 3-4 marchweeks subsequently for an exam?See General announcement 2 general announcements (click it) for record of instructions About 20 or more questions provide come from schoolbook rendition review assignments for this exam these Logic Kernel chapter Word reviews 1 (Logic), 2 (constitution), and 11 (voting, elections &038 campaigns practise yet questions 1-19. ) these review questions re your solo text information responsi bility for exam 1. When I provide chapter reading review questions like this, know these are actual questions from which I allow randomly select some for the reading portion of the exam.I will not ask anything else from the chapter other than the reading review questions provided. This eliminates mystery &038 surprise regarding exam contents. Especially for you freshmen, this is harder than it looks, and will take a number of hours to look up the answers in the text. Study them carefully and you will have no bother with the reading questions oration of the exam. Since I have given(p) you the actual reading questions, I will not give you the answers before the exam, so do the best you can this is a l obtaining exercise. When you buddy up to rent with others, do not trust the answers of others.Validate it with your own eyes or ache the consequences if your buddy is wrong. If you find a bad question, netmail me your class prison term with the chapter &038 question problem with y our page reference, and Ill check it out, but will not give the answer. I will be careful not to submit any that are inaccurate or confusing. There is o confession for you to miss one of these questions if you theatre of operations. If it was me, I would look up the correct answer and when confident, I would delete all the wrong answers so I am Just reinforcing the question and the correct answer when I study.My last treetop is to manage-study both class lectures and reading reviews daily so not overwhelmed by cramming right before an exam which does not work, as some will discover. (c) Website essay portions. 7-10 questions will come from my website essay reading assignment. To find this information, go to General Announcement general announcements (click it) and practise those instructions carefully slightly the hyperlink there titled why studying the U. S.Constitution, as well as national and state and local politics, is so important to each citizen. You are only respon sible on exam 1 for the specific items mentioned in its instructions. Another key word bullet outline assignment because study your outline. (d) General Announcement 5 general announcements (click it) provides specific study ideas for my exams.YeahSpring 2013 SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITYCourse Syllabus CourseACCT 508- federal official tax incomeation income story I PrerequisiteACCT 301 with target of C or better, or ACCT 303 with grade of C- or better. ProfessorTim Hurley, M. B. A. , J. D. , LL. M. representationSCI 355 Office HoursM 300-400, W 500-700, TH 600-700 by appointment Office forebode E-mailemail&160protected edu Required TextHoffman & Smith, separate Income measurees, South-Western federal Taxation 2013 Spring 2013 SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITYCourse SyllabusCourseACCT 508- Federal Tax history I PrerequisiteACCT 301 with grade of C or better, or ACCT 303 with grade of C- or better. ProfessorTim Hurley, M. B. A. , J. D. , LL. M. OfficeSCI 355 Office Hours M 300-400, W 500-700, TH 600-700 by appointment Office Phone E-mailemail&160protected edu Required TextHoffman & Smith, Individual Income Taxes, South-Western Federal Taxation 2013 Spring 2013 SAN FRANCISCO STATE UNIVERSITYCourse Syllabus Course Description Federal Taxes I is a study of the Internal Revenue Code as it affects individuals and sole proprietorships.Basic competence in tax respins, terminology, and tax calculation are emphasized. Extensive coverage is given to tax accounting methods, rates, exemptions, credits, dependents, gross income inclusions and exclusions, not bad(p) gains and losses, deductions associated with a trade or business (including depreciation), and personal deductions such as charitable contributions, interest, taxes, and medical expenses. Married filing jointly, married filing separately, chieftain of a household, surviving spouse, and single filing status are delimitate and explained. Course Goals To provide the disciple with an in-depth look at U. S. federal income tax law with primary emphasis on income taxation for individuals * To expose the student to the authoritative sources of U. S. federal income tax law interpretation * To begin the outgrowth of essential research skills * To make the student aware of the importance of tax planning in business and investment decisions Grading Components Component come-at-able Points Exam I ascorbic acid (approximately 21%) Exam II 100 (approximately 21%) Comprehensive Final Exam 140 (approximately 29%) Tax Return Assignments 65 (approximately14%) Aplia Homework 40 (approximately 9%) Participation 30 (approximately 6%) Total Possible Points = 475 Aplia You must sign up for Aplia. 1. plug into to http//login. cengagebrain. com/ 2. If you already have an account, sign in. From your Dashboard, enter your frame key (DB3V-FC2F-GAY3) in the box provided, and click the Register button. If you dont have an account, click the Create a New Account button, and enter your course key wh en prompted DB3V-FC2F-GAY3. Continue to follow the on-screen instructions. Aplia is a course page designed by the publisher of the book but controlled by me where I will place the syllabus, homework assignments, habituate questions, practice exams, etc. It gives instant feedback on the questions and is a great mode to study for an exam. * Homework assignments are due on Aplia by sunshine at 1100 PM. * Homework assignments will begin with Chapter 3 (in week 3). * Aplia homework is worth 40 points. You will receive 40 points only if you complete all assignments when due and answer 50% of the questions correctly on each assignment. * Partial credit is awarded at the professors discretion.Email need The University has charge you an email address. You are on a class email list that I will use to send important information to you. Thus, you must know your university email address and check your email regularly. schoolman Integrity Plagiarism is a form of cheating or fraud. It occurs when a student misrepresents the work of another as his or her own. Plagiarism whitethorn consist of using the ideas, sentences, paragraphs, or the whole text of another without enchant acknowledgement, but it also includes allowing another person to write or advantageously alter work that a student then submits as his or her own.Any assignment found to be plagiarized will be given a failing grade. All instances of plagiarism in the Department of Accounting will be inform to the Department Chair, and may be reported to the University Judicial Affairs Officer for further action. Special Learning or Physical Accommodations Policy If you have a disability and need assistance in any way, please let me know as short as possible. This course adheres to San Francisco State Universitys policy on the appointment of disabled students. correctroom Policies To maintain an appropriate learning environment in the classroom, students must conduct themselves in a professional manner so as no t to disturb other students or the instructor. amuse be respectful to other students and to me by arriving to class on time, not sleeping, and not talking during class unless it is to contribute to a class discussion. If it is absolutely unavoidable to leave during class, then sit near the door. * No laptops. * Please turn off all phones before coming to class. * Texting during class is strictly prohibited. Please take the same seat for each class it helps me to learn your names. * If class is canceled for any reason, the assignments for that day will be due in the contiguous class. Make-up exams Exams will only be given during scheduled class periods. Make-up exams will not be given. If you have a plan conflict, then you need to fox the course. Withdrawal from Class If you should decide to drop or withdraw from this course or withdraw from the University, you must postdate with the official procedures (confer with the Office of the Registrar) or receive a grade of F for this course.Students who stop attending class without officially withdrawing from the course receive a grade based upon the total points they have accumulated. Ordinarily, the result will be an F grade. Attendance / Participation / Homework Attendance will be taken at the beginning of each class meeting. If you do not attend class, it is likely that you will not pass this course. Taxation is not something that you can learn on your own and then take the exam. kindred most Accounting courses, this is a problem-based course. At the end of each chapter, you will find problems.In addition, I will post additional problems that we will work in class. It is essential that you work and rework these problems and that you are able to do them on your own before the exam without looking at the answers. It is expect that readings and problems will be completed prior to class. Students should be expected to be called on in class, and students should therefore be prepared to discuss the assigned mater ials and problems from each class. Participation Generally, I will ask for volunteers to help in class discussions and to assist me in working out homework problems.You earn the intricacy points for volunteering. If I do not get a volunteer, I will call on students at random. If I call on you and you are unprepared or ill prepared, you will lose participation points. Texting During Class If you text during class, you will lose all participation points for that class. If this continues, on the third such occurrence, I will drop your grade one letter grade. Just because I do not call you out during class for texting does not mean that I did not see you. A few comments on grades and grading * Failure to complete all course requirements will result in receiving a course grade of F. pleonastic credit is not part of the course grading plan. * Where there are close calls on grades, I will look to see if there is an improving trend and consider other positive factors in your boilers su it performance such as class participation and conduct. * Students are further to discuss concerns about their performance or course grades with the instructor at any time. * No grades will be provided or discussed over the telephone. Class Schedule This represents planned topics and problems however, it will be modified as necessary to ensure that course material is covered adequately or to answer to special circumstances.The listing of assignments presented here is incomplete. Additions or deletions will be make as the semester progresses. Note that you must track the progress we have do and make sure you are prepared for class. Chapter Number Topic 1 An Introduction to Taxation and Understanding the Federal Tax LawAssignment skim the chapter 2 Working with the Tax Law (Read pages 2-1 to 2-19) Assignment 11, 17 3 reason the TaxAssignment 3,4,18,19,20,28,29,32,33,34,39(a)(b),42,44,47 MIDTERM I (tentative) 100 POINTS Gross Income Concepts and InclusionsAssignment 23 (answer only how ofttimes of the $9,000 annuity payment will be included in Bettys income in 2000), 35, 52, 53, 56(a) 14 Property Transactions Determination of Gain or Loss, Basis Considerations, and Nontaxable Exchanges (Read 14-1 to 14-20)Assignment 30, 36, 44, 51, 53(a)+(b), Chapter 3 51 5 Gross Income ExclusionsAssignment 8, 28, 29, 34, 48, 56(b) 6 Deductions and losses In GeneralAssignment 27, 34, 41, 48, 61 MIDTERM II (tentative) 100 POINTS Deductions and Losses Certain Business Expenses and LossesAssignment 33, 37, 56 8 Depreciation, Cost Recovery, Amortization, and DepletionAssignment 31, 33, 34, 36, 37, 40, 49 9 Deductions Employee and Self-Employed-Related ExpensesAssignment 33, 36, 42, 46, 48 12 Tax Credits and PaymentsAssignment COMPREHENSIVE FINAL trial run 140 POINTSMay 23 1045 115

Cultural Anthropology/Marriage, Reproduction, and Kinship Essay

Despite being out(p) both by law and mainstream Mormon doctrine, the practice is not tho thriving in heavily Mormon Utah and other(a) part of the U.S. West alone appears to be growing. Underage marriage, incest, emotional and physical shout towards the wives, and child neglect be some of the few things that are rather common within polygamous communities. matchless simple way to each(prenominal)eviate prevent these things is to keep marriage a bond between dickens people, not one reality and ten wives or one muliebrity with ten husbands, by enforcing the laws banning polygamy.Firstly, prosecutions of polygamists in modern times halt been rare and tend to be restricted to cases where only small marriage is practiced and rape or child maltreatment is suspected. Some of the brides are besides forced into marriages with a close relative. (Polygamy) In 2007 Warren Jeffs, consequently the leader of the dissident 10,000-member Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of lat ter(prenominal) Day Saints (FLDS), was imprisoned in Utah afterwards he was convicted of having been an attendant to rape for his role in arranging marriages between adult manful followers and underage girls. In April 2008, more than 460 children from an FLDS compound in Texas were outback(a) by authorities from the custody of their parents after an anonymous tip to an abuse hotline. (The Perils of Polygamy) Another issue that had burst into the open with the high-profile trials of two brothers, David and John Daniel Kingston. One of John Daniels daughters, then 16, told police he had forced her to link her uncle Davidwho already had 14 wives. When the girl fled home after foursome internal encounters with her uncle, she testified, her father beat her with a belt. Amid a blaze of media attention, John Daniel pleaded no contest to child abuse charges in April, and is now serving a 28-week sentence. On July 9, David was sentenced to up to 10 years in prison for incest and felo nious sexual conduct with a minor.Also, in polygamous families, the man of the theaters all of the power, creating an environment prone to physical and emotional abuse. (The Perils of Polygamy) Carmen Thompson, now 41, spent 13 years as one of a Salt Lake City Mormon mans octet wives, a harem that she says included the mans sister and 14-year-old niece. She finally left him, taking their five children, after what she describes as years of beatings, poerty and emotional neglect. Last year, Thompson helped found arras of Polygamy, the first-ever stomach group for women and children leaving polygamous marriages. Since the beginning of the year, the group has fielded over 300 calls from people seeking help. In polygamous families, the patriarch has all the power, says Thompson. When theres that benevolent of imbalance, abuse comes naturally. Even supporters concede polygamy has its downsides. The green-eyed monster was very heavy(p) to take, admits Elaine, Harmstons first wife, with whom he had been married over 30 years before taking his subsequent wives. Thompson, the anti-polygamy activist, says the result is a kind of brainwashing. Its incredibly emotionally degrading to lie in tooshie and hear your husband having sex with another woman on the other side of the wall, she says. But youre taught that jealousy is a sin against immortal that you should fight. You learn to deny your emotions. (Canadian Court Rules That Polygamy Ban Is Constitutional) Women in polygamous relationships face higher rates of domestic, physical and sexual abuse, died jr. and are more prone to mental illnesses when being compared to monogamous marriages.Finally, also underage marriages and abusive environment, the children in polygamous marriages suffer from different types of neglect. (The Perils of Polygamy) Lillian Bowles was blue growing up as one of 40 children in a cloistered polygamous community near Salt Lake City. Her father had eight wives and she saw him only once a week, on Saturday nights when it was her mothers turn. He had very little interaction with our lives, besides an incredible count of control, says Bowles, 26. We couldnt even play at a friends house without getting his permission. You can talk about consenting adults, but the kids have no choice. Finances are often a problem, too. It is hard to find, let alone afford, housing for a family that includes three or four wives and a dozen or more children. Wed go weary food out of the dumpster behind the grocery store every week, says Bowles. in that location were lots of other families who did the same. Most families in polygamous situations are on welfare or food stamps. The men in these families cannot financially support all the women and children, and the women are generally not permitted the freedom to choose a career and work outside the family compound.On the other hand, as consenting adults, they should have the right to live however they want as retentive as theyre not breaking any other present or federal laws. (The Perils of Polygamy) We abhor abuse of any kind,, says Mary Potter, one time one of a policemans three wives and recent hand of a pro-polygamy womens group, the Womens Religious Liberties Union. But abuse is also rampant in monogamous marriages. Why blame our religion?Lastly, underage marriage, neglect, and abuse can happen in any familys household and some polygamous families may not condone to any of those things, but there are too many families that do agree that its the patriarchs decision of who marries who and who does what.