Wednesday, June 5, 2019
Arte Povera Movements in Modern Art
Arte Povera Movements in Modern ArtThe movement Arte Povera began in late 1960s the get word creative persons were Giovanni Anselmo, Jannis Kounellis, Alighiero Boetti, Luciano Fabro, Mario Merz, Marisa Merz, Pier Paolo Calzolari, Giulio Paolini, Gi exerciseppe Penone, Pino Pascali and Michelangelo Pistoletto. Arte Povera translated, essence poor operativeic creation but this does not refer to the quality or types of materials dropd alone. The artists knotted produced sculpture, photography installation and performance. There were in any case other types of art practice that had an affinity to Arte Povera Land art, antiform, postminimalism and judgmentual art. The artists within this movement were concerned with that point at which art and life, nature and culture, intersect (Christov-Bakargie 1999 17).Arte Povera constitute significance within physical forces present in every day life, such as gravity and electricity. Art that merely represented life and acted as a go bet ween art and life was not considered by Arte Povera, experiencing a real life situation was the focus. Along with involving physical forces Arte Povera engaged with aspects of piece nature. The fair games and materials that the artists used to evoke aspects of human nature stirred the senses allowing the viewer to experience the rick. For example Jannis Kounellis wanted the viewer to use their sense of smell he did this by apply coffee within his work. The use of school texture is applied within Arte Povera, suggesting that the viewer touch the work. The use of text was also popular with Arte Povera, the words were for the most leave-taking handwritten so would come across more personal. In terms of location the artists tend to work indoors however ease up worked in site-specific places. They have created installations, sculpture, film, and performance the artists also worked with ideas of the permanent and temporary. The scale is often determined by the dimensions of the hu man body, its physical presence and behaviour (Christov-Bakargie 1999 19) this is demonstrated in Fabros piece in-cubo which consisted of a cloth cube that was big enough for just one person. Kounellis also stated that I cant exceed the height of a man (Bellini 2007 114).Arte Povera was an take for artists at the time to rebel against what they considered an oppressive hunting lodge both economi augury and culturally. They believed both these things were trapped within traditions and focused heavily upon consumerism devised to control sort of than relinquish (Christov-Bakargie 1999 20). Many other things came under attack at this time such as education, sexuality and religion. The Arte Povera artists questioned all traditionalistic materials, scale, form and concept. A key concept for the artists was to reduce the intellectual control and make the experience more meaning(a). Jean-Chrisophe Ammann gave a definition of Arte PoveraArte Povera designates a kind of art which, in c ontrast to the technologized field near it, seeks to achieve a poetic statement with the simplest of means. This return to simple materials, revealing laws and processes deriving from the power of the imagination, is an examination of the artists proclaim conduct in an industrialized society A way of dropping out which is by no means a denial of society, but which instead asserts a moral claim the subjectified in its objectified authenticity reflects a natural recollection of environmental phenomena, both universal and individual (Christov-Bakargie 1999 20).The text Art Povera notes for a Guerrilla War written by Germano Celant begins by describing a type of art that follows the system First came man, then the system. That is the way it used to be. Now society produces, and man consumes (Celant 1967 119). This system demands that the art produced by an artist has to follow a certain route they must conform to the art they have made in the past. The artist makes objects that suit the system, they cannot create an object just for it to be an object they must justify the art and then make it fit for distributionTurning himself as an artist into a stand-in for an assembly line. No longer a stimulator, technician, or specialist of discovery, he becomes a cog in a mechanism. His behaviour is conditioned into never go more than a correction to the serviceman, perfecting its fond structures but never modifying or revolutionizing them (Celant 1967 119).Marcel Duchamp is mentioned as an opposing example to this type of art, he was never fire in pleasing the system and instead made art that did not follow a linear path. Celant describes that art has two directions one universe development existing structures and the other the choice is to make a free art which allows for progression within the work. Celant believes the first choice of using the existing structure is a complex art and the second choice, a free art is a poor art due to it involving unforeseen ev ents and working within the present. Over on that point a complex art, over here a poor art. Committed to contingency, to events, to the non-historical, to the present (Celant 1967 119).Arte Povera artists rejected societies system, the artist wanted to be free to grow from the expertness to move in any direction with their art to produce art that is unpredictable The artist, who was exploited before, now becomes a guerrilla warrior (Celant, 1967 119). In a world where the system is well and truly cemented within society Arte Povera exists by not committing itself to any one system. This art is controlled by the practical objective to liberate art. Not to correspond ideas or art objects in to the world, which could fall in to the systemHence it does away with categorical positions to focus on gestures that do not add anything to our well-educated perception, that do not oppose themselves to life as art or lead to the creation of separate levels for the ego and the world, but exis t as social gestures in and of themselves, as formative and compositive liberations which aim at the identification between man and the world ( Celant, 1967 119).Celant later wrote another text on Arte Povera in 1969, within this text he reiterates that the artist is renewing events that happen in nature. He comp atomic number 18s the artist to an alchemist, having the ability like nature does to create magical things. The artist does not intend to represent these natural processes Like a simple-structured organism, the artist mingles with the environment, he camouflages himself with it (Celant quoted in Christov-Bakargie 1999 198). Consequently the artist does not aim to change the world or influence it anyway, instead wishes to appreciate natural processes that occur and then experience them through qualification art. Celant identifies that Arte Povera involves the abolishment of following trends within your work and what you are expected to create as an artist and instead allo w the work to organically progress.He abolishes his role as artist, intellectual, painter and sculptor. He learns again to perceive, to feel, to breathe, to walk, to understand, to use himself as a man. Naturally, learning to move or rediscovering ones own existence does not mean playing a new role or making movements, but using oneself as a continuously mouldable material (Celant quoted in Christov-Bakargie1999 198).In 1968 Marisa Volpi wrote American Art and Italian Art New directions, within this text she explores what is primary or minimal art. She defines this type of art as devoid of complicated form and absent from traditional aestheticism ( Volpi quoted in Christov-Bakargie 1999 196). She also writes that these types of artists tend to be sculptors, as they believe that painting is limited in its two dimensionality, which proportionricts its capabilities of illusionism. Their focus is on involving the viewers in their presence and prompting isolated and particularized sensa tions, rather than on making them reflect, think and exercise judgement ( Volpi quoted in Christov-Bakargie 1999 196). Volpi states that the distinctive feature at the time the text was written between European artists and others differed by their intellectual understatements within their art. Volpi describes what the Arte Povera artists produced They work on that perceptual fabric which comes before our logical-historical relations with the world (Volpi quoted in Christov-Bakargie 1999 196). This quote is expressing similar ideas written by Celant, that Arte Povera is a rejection of producing work that follows a pattern and instead works with human nature as content. She describes many assorted themes within Arte Povera one being the use of mediocre processes such as filling up, covering up, opening, rolling up, take downing etc (Volpi quoted in Christov-Bakargie 1999 196). Volpi ends her essay by writing that the Arte Povera artists intended to change the way that art was tra ditionally perceived.Chapter 2 part 2This section of the chapter will explore several artists work who were involve within the Arte Povera Movement. Looking back at the question, what is Relational aesthetics relationship to Arte Povera? Does Arte Povera include social interactions as part of the practice in the same way as Relational Aesthetics? Considering artist practices and how they use interaction and date within their art. The artist Michelangelo Pistoletto (2001) said almost his workI am interested in the passage between objects more than in the objects themselves. I am interested in the perceptive faculty, in the sensitisation of the individual. Objects, the state of things, human movements accepted in their conventional appearance, do not contribute in any way to the profound stimulus of man, the full use of his cerebral capacities (Pistoletto quoted in 2001 7).He is saying here that the object is not the most important part of the object but the channels between objec ts. He is interested in the interaction of the individual with the work and the awareness the viewer has of the work by way of their senses. Looking at objects in their normal capacity will not motivate people to use their full intellectual abilities.Pistoletto was recognized as a key artist of Arte Povera, his most famous pieces are reverberate Paintings and his series disconfirming Objects. Mirror Paintings consisted of human scaled images applied to reflective steel. The use of steel and the reflections from the viewers of the work meant the paintings were breaking with traditions of figurative painting. The involvement of the viewer within the art evoked a link between art and life. damaging objects was a series of sculptures that offered psychological and physical experiences (Tate 2001..). One sculpture Lunch Painting 1965 is a cross between a picnic table and chairs, a painting and a sculpture thus questioning traditions of painting and not creating objects as commodities. In an interview with Paola Noe Can Art still Save Our Souls? 2008 Pistoletto identifies the beginnings of his Mirror PaintingsThe figure of a man seemed to come forward, as if alive, in the space of the impetus but the true protagonist was the relationship of instantaneousness that was created between the spectator, his own reflection and the painted figure, in an ever-present movement that concentrated the past and the figure in itself to such an extent as to cause one to call their very existence into doubt it was the dimension of time itself (Noe 2008 64).Pistoletto distinguishes that the central theme of the work is the interactivity between the artwork and the spectator. He explains in that respect are two different types of present the one of the reflections and the time the image was captured, the image captured is also in the past as a memory. Past, present and future are all involved in the piece in different combinations, the future being the continuation of visitors to the gallery.Noe considers Pistolettos Minus Objects foretold Bourriauds theory Relational Aesthetics. Pistoletto responded in agreement suggesting the theory was born from Minus Objects with which I moved from the diversity of objects to the diversity of people (Noe 2008 67). He states by taking his work outside the gallery it opened up art to a wider audience and to the unconventional. However Bourriaud states that relational art is not a re-interpretation or revival of any art movement. Relational artists do not use social interaction because it is the trend at the time or as an accompaniment to their practice. The social interaction is the subject matter of their work, and also the outcome. Bourriaud contends that previous use of participation in art specifically in the 60s was concerned with the definition of art as its focus and not social interactivity. Bourriaud also comments that art in this achievement was creating utopian ideas of society unlike Relational Aesthetics tha t created existing spaces.Giovanni Anselmo is another artist from Arte Povera who worked with nature and phenomena, one example is his use of the physical force, gravity. These things play the part of content as well as material within his work. At the centre of his art which integrates nature, perception and philosophy stands the human being (Werd and Watkins 2005 106). The human being is an integral part of Anselmos work, as the gallery goer is transformed into a participant. For example his work Invisible 1971 involved a projected light, if anyone came into contact with the light it would then project on to his or her body making the light visible.Anselmos work of the 1960s and 1970s is an exploration of the obvious connection between art and the difficulty of understanding the world around us. In relation to the important aspects of Arte Povera mentioned earlier in this chapter Anselmo tries to break traditions for example having his materials created by someone else removing the workmanship and the traditional idea of processes like stone carving. He makes the experience of the work more important rather than the intellect in the work. Anselmo is re-inventing things within nature and phenomenon whilst keeping the work simple and bridging the gap between art and life however not representing it. Anselmo states he tries to be real, noting how he finds it incredible to be on earth, walking about and lookingit is magic just to be here. And often one forgets that (Anselmo quoted in Werd and Watkins 2005 112).Anselmo (1969) writes that he does not fix situations but keeps them open, as situations in real life are not fixed they are in a constant state of change. Because energy exists in all guises and in all situations, to work with energy requires substance freedom in choosing and using materials (Anselmo quoted in Christov-Bakargie 1999 233).Jannis Kounellis was also an artist that was associated with Arte Povera, Kounellis questioned conventions and tr aditions within art and also made art that cannot be sold. He did this by using live animals within his work, such as parrots, horses and goldfish. When asked what it was that defined Arte Povera Kounellis responded by saying that there was little planning or rigidity involved, Not having any commanding paranoia, not starting from a manifesto, the acceptance of contradictions (Bellini 2007 114). In his work Opposite (1967) Kounellis placed a variety of objects that contrasted within the gallery space, by doing this he created a theatrical environment in which visitors became more than viewers and instead were transformed into actors. Kounellis also created an installation Untitled (12 horses) the use of twelve horses was not just to get by consumer society, but also referenced historical painting and were seen to represent power and energy. The human senses were also important to the Arte Povera artists in Kounelliss case he used smell. genius as a theme is also included within h is work, he often places fire within the work from quite aggressive jets of fire to a more intimate use of fire in candles.In an interview with Marisa Volpi (1968) and Kounellis discuss whether chance is a determinate factor with his work. Kounellis states that When you have a plan, there is the fixed idea of development. When you plan, you eliminate openness. (Kounellis quoted in Christov-Bakargie 1999 248). Kounellis (1968 a) also reiterates an important aspect within Arte Povera and that is the intention to unite art and life. He demonstrates this unity through the renewal of the gallery into a theatre where real life and fiction merge (Tate). Kounellis (1968 b) explains that art should strive towards authenticity and by using this term he means an art that does not categorize itself within a product or tradition that it doesnt want to shed. He states the work should be defiant towards conventionality the artist then becomes a permanent disturbance (Kounellis quoted in Christo v-Bakargie 1999 248). It is also important however that the viewer also sees the work in this way they must contradict to them as signs of otherness and as indications of unconventionality (Kounellis quoted in Christov-Bakargie 1999 248).In an interview with Andrea Bellini, Kounellis speaks about several topics the first one explored is drama. Drama is a fundamental part in his work and this is because drama is the basis of his culture. Kounellis is asked to explain what drama is and replies, In Italy, wherever there is drama, there is a new perspective everything new is dramatically new, the rest is not actually new (Bellini 2007 112). Language is also referred to Kounellis feels the most important gesture he has ever made was when he broke away from the weather sheet and started to work outside of it, this allowed him realize more this gesture opened a world for me (Bellini 2007 113). The approaches made by Kounellis and others within the Arte Povera movement have lead to the rethinking of the gallery space or as Kounellis (2007) states by considering intervention within the gallery has changed the rules of the game. For example the piece where he placed a mass of carbon in the corner of a room as a gesture showed a different way to use the gallery. He strongly believes that the gallery is not a place to purchase artwork. The artist must make work that is socially relevant and make a declaration at the same time.