Wednesday, March 13, 2019

Auditor Independence – 2

Introduction emancipation is a fundamental to the reli major(ip) power of take stockors reports. It is an attitude of mind characterized by impartiality and an objective approach to professional utilizations. A professional meeter should go away both independent and seen to be so. Nowadays, precisely, the trend of providing non- canvas service to analyze knobs attend to be sweeping tidings report firms all over the world impacts of liberty impairment cased by this trend should not be ignored.The Meaning of liberty The essential feature of an audit is its independence and, if an accountant performs the accountancy work and then checks it himself, this checking go offnot be viewed to be an audit because it lacks independence. From ACCAs Code of Ethics, the comment of independence is composed of independence of mind and independence in appearance.In general, independence means an attendees opinion must be based on an objective without bias and dis delighted assessme nt of whether the fiscal statements are presented fairly in conformity with generally accepted account principles. The Importance of Independence in relation to the provision of assurance The judge of audit derives entirely from its independence. Without independence, auditors opinions lack impacts and credibility. The relationship amidst the auditors and audit clients, however, gives a potential threat to the independence.Influencing hearers Reports on Clients Financial Position due to Conflicts of Interests Possibilities of conflicts of interest between firms and clients, where situations such(prenominal) as, connections of an audit firm with associated firms, family and another(prenominal) personal relationships, monetary interests in audit client, employment with audit clients, provision of non-audit service to audit clients, may consequently affect auditors. Without the strength of character to withstand such pressure, auditors may be unable to express independent opinio ns.Preserving Investors Confidence in the Financial Market universe confidence in the capital trade place relies heavily on the appearance of auditor independence. listener independence helps to condition quality audits and sustain the circulations of investment with the capital market. Investor confidence is eroded if investors and other users of the financial statement information do not perceive that the auditor was independent in both fact and appearance. Giving Constructive AdviceAlthough in that location is no formal obligation, a good auditor will be anxious to offer his client assistance on improvements in the financial aspects of the business if he can give an unbiased independent opinion, where added abide by is brought to clients and to the wider business community. Lowering Litigations Sustaining independence enables the auditors to objectively report on unbowed and Fair Value of any information infallible to be reveal in financial accounts, of which the chance s of successful negligence lawsuit to a direct acceptable will be decreased.The Nature of other run provided by the auditors In the classification from APB, non-audit serve is composed of any elaborateness where an audit firm provides professional function to an audited client other than the audit of financial statements, and pursuant to those other roles which legislation or regulation specify can be performed by the auditor of the entity.There are five variant natures of non-audit operate categorized by activities arising directly from an audit of a fellowships financial statements, services infallible to be provided by the auditor by laws, services provided by auditors because of their familiarity with the client and, as a consequence, their ability to perform them in a durationly and cost effective manner, services provided because of the pool of chronicle and related financial skills available to accountancy firms, services provided because of the pool of consulting and general business skills available to accountancy firmsCritical interchange of Ethical Code Requirements Independence is part of the accountants enactment of professional conduct. Under APB Ethical Standards the concept of auditor independence shifted in favor of objectivity and neutrality in the reporting of the financial stake and the results of operations, rather than loyalty to a particular party. The Ethical Standards allow audit firms to offer consulting services such as internal auditing and information engine room but are subject to certain restrictions, and audit firms are required to dis miserly fees received from auditing and all non-audit services.However, without providing clear distinctions which makes grey area exists, the rules should stray on the side of caution. Auditors and their clients are likely to continually test the limits of what is permissible, including by litigating restrictions they oppose. UKs Combined Code on Corporate Governance save recomm ends that audit committees develop policies to govern the future provision of non-audit services, but does not require a pre-approval of non-audit services by audit committees.No specialised enforcement mechanism ensures that management does not become involved, directly or indirectly, in selecting auditors or determining audit fees and the scope of audit. Ethical code requirements should counseling to a greater extent on the issue of to what extent client management may still be able to influence the audit fee and the scope of audit engagement. Explanation of the Current and Emerging DevelopmentsIn order to increase revenue, recently, explanation firms not only provides auditing services, other services including book holding, financial information systems design, human resources and management functions, valuation, internal audit, tax, legal, investment banking services and expert services unrelated to audit, also provides. There are several(prenominal) reasons leading to the i ncreasing popularity of providing non-audit service, Price Competition Auditing becomes a low-profit activity that clients progressively search for the lowest prices and the loosest standards.Competitive bidding in auditing created pressure to centralise audit engagement hours. To maintain overall revenues, high profitability of the legion(predicate) new consulting and other non-audit services is being offered. Horizontal Integration The speedy growth of business enterprises on a worldwide basis provided banging accounting firms with an opportunity to become the preferred providers of a wide plod of business services, the revenues from non-audit services for audit clients quickly outpaced the fees from auditing-only services.Audit Effectiveness Providing non-audit services allows accounting firms to perform develop audits because they can obtain a better understanding of the clients systems, which can achieve the cost-effective goal. reprehension and Analysis of Independence Impaired by Provision of Non-audit Services The telling increase in reliance on revenues from non-audit services may declare placed increased pressure on auditor independence.The major accounting firms, seems vigorously opposed reforms to eliminate the growing conflicts of interest arising from auditing and consulting for the same client, because of economic bond which the auditor does not want to lose developed between the client and the accounting firm. In order to be more competitive, accounting firms try to reduce audit fees to attractive customers by reducing engagement hours. But this risk-based auditing approach may not detect fraudulent activities. more or less auditors shifted their concept of independence to becoming trusted advisors to the clients management.Although playacting independence in certain situations is acceptable, too often an auditors efforts to help management resulted in concealing true economic performance. It appeared that or so auditors ignored th eir roughly immediate responsibility to act on behalf of third-party investors or, at a minimum, to be an objective and neutral interpreter of accounting standards. umteen another(prenominal) non-audit services evolved from requests by audit clients for additive services that their auditors seemed best suited, as well as from the special skills needed to audit new and confused business transactions.Expanding the scope of the specialists activities helped firms attract and retain people with skills that were increasing definitive to effective auditing. Audit firms management consulting practices have expended far beyond the skills required for audit support and the traditional areas related to financial planning and learns. Independence questions can arise when these services are marketed to audit clients. However, it is obvious that major accounting firms keep bearing legal risks by providing non-audit services to audit clients.Even ethical standard regarding to provision of non-audit services has been revised firms could present that advanced technology and improved education enabled accounting firms to provide many non-audit services to their current client. Conclusion and Recommendations Independence, both historically and philosophically, is the foundation of accounting profession and upon its maintenance depending on the professions strength and its stature.From my viewpoint, it is essential that Ethical standards put efforts on monitoring auditor independence but standing at the point of running the business, accounting firms have twine an increasingly complex web of business and financial relationships with their audit clients. The most common case of independence impairment occurs because an auditor becomes so close to the client as to be unable to function objectively. The actual cause of the independence problems, however, generally was not wanton disregard rules.Instead, internal domination problems may have caused many of the breach wher e the weak internal hold in system is unable to trace employees investments. Despite of regulations, area needs to be addressed to improve the auditor independence is the audit firms internal control systems, of which all relationships between each auditor and audit clients should be reviewed from time to time. The nature of the non-audit services providing to audit clients maybe diverse in different era. It appears that there is more mobility of employees and an increase in dual-career families.In the foreseeable future, keeping prohibition on non-audit services would help medium-sized accounting firms secure additional non-audit work with major clients. On the other hand, the increasingly competitive auditing market and the complexity of international business practices may cause some auditors to reduce their focus on objective and neutral interpretation of accounting standards in favor of becoming a trusted advisor for clients. MMUBS Reference sacred scripture Graham W. Cosser at and Neil Rodda (2009) Modern Auditing, 3rd ed. , John Wiley & Sons, LtdDiane Walters and John Dunn (2001) Students Manual of Auditing The Guide to UK Auditing Practice, 6th ed. , Thomson Learning M. Shere and S. Turley (1991) Current leaves in Auditing, second ed. , Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd Newspaper Article Internet Copy editor in chief (2009) Auditor independence important CMDA The Miadhu News. Online 4th November. Accessed on 4th November 2009 http//www. miadhu. com/2009/11/local-news/auditor-independence-important-cmda/ Journal Article Internet Copy Franklin Strier (2006) Proposals to Improve the Image of the Public Accounting Profession certified public accountant Journal, March 2006 burn http//www. ysscpa. org/cpajournal/2006/306/essentials/p67. htm C. Richard Baker (2005) The varying Concept of Auditor Independence Shifting with the Prevailing Environment CPA Journal, August 2005 Issue http//www. nysscpa. org/cpajournal/2005/805/infocus/p22. htm Robert H. Colson ( 2004) CPA Independence, Present and Future CPA Journal, April 2004 Issue http//www. nysscpa. org/cpajournal/2004/404/essentials/p80. htm Carolyn L. Lousteau and Mark E. Reid (2003) Internal Control Systems for Auditor Independence CPA Journal, January 2003 Issue http//www. nysscpa. rg/cpajournal/2003/0103/features/f013603. htm Deborah L. Lindberg and Frank D. Beck (2004) Before and After Enron CPAs Views on Auditor Independence CPA Journal, November 2004 Issue http//www. nysscpa. org/cpajournal/2004/1104/essentials/p36. htm Mario Christodoulou (2009) Debate rages on over KPMGs cut-price Rentokil audit deal Accountancy Age, 20 August 2009 http//www. accountacyage. com/accountancyage/news/2248103/debate-rages-kpmg-cut-price Internet Source Organization NASD Notice to Members 02-19. (2002) Auditor Independence arcsecond Review of Auditor Independence Rule. Online Accessed on March 2002 http//www. finra. org/web/groups/ pains/ip/reg/notice/documents/notices/p003715. pdf Investor Prote ction (2003) Strengthening the Commissions Requirements Regarding Auditor Independence. Online Accessed on 20th January 2003 http//www. consumerfed. org/pdfs/011303auditor. pdf Public Oversight Board (2002) Report and Recommendations Chapter 5 Auditor Independence Online Accessed on March 2002 http//www. pobauditpanel. org/downloads/chapter5. pdf APB (2009) Consultation Paper on audit firms providing non-audit services to

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